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  1. Mousavi, S., V. Mozaffarian, K. Mummenhoff, S. R. Downie, and S. Zarre. 2021. Systematics of the Iranian genera Aphanopleura, Demavendia, Haussknechtia, Psammogeton, and Zeravschania (Apiaceae tribe Pimpinelleae). Plant Systematics and Evolution (submitted Feb 12, 2021).

  2. Clarkson, J. J., A. R. Zuntini, O. Maurin, S. R. Downie, G. M. Plunkett, A. A. Nicolas, J. F. Smith, M. A. E. Feist, K. Gutierrez, P. Malakasi, P. Bailey, G. E. Brewer, N. Epitawalage, S. Zmarzty, F. Forest and W. J. Baker. 2021. A higher-level nuclear phylogenomic study of the carrot family (Apiaceae). American Journal of Botany, in press.

  3. Ottenlips, M. V., D. H. Mansfield, S. Buerki, M. A. E. Feist, S. R. Downie, S. Dodsworth, F. Forest, G. M. Plunkett, and J. F. Smith. 2021. Resolving species boundaries with the Angiosperms353 probe set in a recent radiation: The Lomatium packardiae/L.anomalum clade of the L. triternatum (Apiaceae) complex. American Journal of Botany, in press.

  4. Mousavi, S., V. Mozaffarian, K. Mummenhoff, S. R. Downie, and S. Zarre. 2021. An updated lineage-based tribal classification of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae with special focus on the Iranian genera. Systematic and Biodiversity 19(1): 89-109.

  5. Liao, C.-Y., Q. Giao, D. S. Katz-Downie, and S. R. Downie. 2021. A systematic study of North American Angelica species (Apiaceae) based on nrDNA ITS and cpDNA sequences and fruit morphology. Journal of Systematics and Evolution

  6. Zhou, J., Y.-Z. Gao, J. Wei, Z.-W. Liu, and S. R. Downie. 2020. Molecular phylogenetics of Ligusticum (Apiaceae) based on nrDNA ITS sequences: rampant polyphyly, placement of the Chinese endemic species, and a much-reduced circumscription of the genus. International Journal of Plant Sciences 181: 306-323.

  7. Chang, H., S. R. Downie, H. Peng, and F. Sun. 2019. Floral organogenesis in three members of the tribe Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae). Plants 8 (11), 493.

  8. Spalik, K., A. Wojewˇdzka, T. Constantinidis, S. R. Downie, M. Gierek, and L. Banasiak. 2019. Laserocarpum, a new genus of Apiaceae endemic to Greece. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae.

  9. Mustafina, F. U., D.-K. Yi, K. Choi, C. H. Shin, K. S. Tojibaev, and S. R. Downie. 2019. A comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from Prangos fedtschenkoi and P. lipskyi (Apiaceae). Ecology and Evolution 9: 364-377.

  10. Wojewodzka, A., J. Baczynski, L. Banasiak, S. R. Downie, A. Czarnocka-Cieciura, M. Gierek, I. Frankiewicz, and K. Spalik. 2019. Evolutionary shifts in fruit dispersal syndromes in Apiaceae tribe Scandiceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 305: 401-414.

  11. Chen, Z.-X., X.-Y. Yao, S. R. Downie, and Q.-Z. Wang. 2019. Assembling and analysis of the Sanicula orthacantha chloroplast genome. Biodiversity Science 27: 366-372. [in Chinese]

  12. Chen, Z.-X., X.-Y. Yao, S. R. Downie, and Q.-Z. Wang. 2019. Fruit features of 15 species of Sanicula (Apiaceae) and their taxonomic significance. Plant Science Journal 37: 1-9. [in Chinese]

  13. Chen, Z.-X., S. R. Downie, and Q.-Z. Wang. 2019. Review of the taxonomy, origin and evolution of Sanicula (Umbelliferae). Plant Science Journal 36: 136-143. [in Chinese]

  14. Wang, Q. Z., S. R. Downie, and Z. X. Chen. 2018. Genome-wide searches and molecular analyses highlight the unique evolutionary path of flavone synthase I (FNS1) in Apiaceae. Genome 61: 103-109.

  15. Smith, J. F., D. H. Mansfield, M. Stevens, E. Sosa, M. A. E. Feist, S. R. Downie, G. M. Plunkett, and M. Darrach. 2018. Try tri again?: Resolving species boundaries in the Lomatium triternatum (Apiaceae) complex. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 56: 218-230.

  16. Danderson, C. A., S. R. Downie, and M. Hermann. 2018. Rampant polyphyly in the Arracacia clade (Apiaceae) and an assessment of the phylogenetic utility of 20 noncoding plastid loci. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 118: 286-305.

  17. Mansfield, D. H., M. Darrach, S. R. Downie, M. A. E. Feist, R. L. Hartman, K. M. Mason, G. M. Plunkett and J. F. Smith. 2017. New combinations in Pseudocymopterus and Cymopterus (Apiaceae). Phytoneuron 57: 1-4.

  18. Feist, M. A. E., J. F. Smith, D. H. Mansfield, M. Darrach, R. P. McNeill, S. R. Downie, G. M. Plunkett and B. L. Wilson. 2017. New combinations in Lomatium (Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae). Phytotaxa 316: 95-98.

  19. Sun, F.-J. and S. R. Downie. 2017. Perideridia, Apiaceae. Flora of North America, vol. 13.

  20. Liu, M. and S. R. Downie. 2017. The phylogenetic significance of fruit anatomical and micromorphological structures in Chinese Heracleum species and related taxa (Apiaceae). Systematic Botany 42: 313-325.

  21. Menemen, Y., A. Kandemir, and S. R. Downie. 2016. Pastinaca erzincanensis (Apiaceae), a new species from eastern Turkey and its phylogenetic position within Tordylieae. Annales Botanici Fennici 53: 373-382.

  22. Wang, Q. Z., M. Huang, S. R. Downie, and Z. X. Chen. 2016. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae). Genetics and Molecular Research 15 (2): gmr 15028038.

  23. Downie, S. R., R. M. Peery, and R. K. Jansen. 2016. Another first for the Apiaceae: Evidence for mitochondrial DNA transfer into the plastid genome. Proceedings of the VIII International Apiales Symposium, Istanbul. Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Istanbul University 44: 131-144.

  24. Zakharova, E. A., E. V. Kljuykov, G. V. Degtjareva, T. H. Samigullin, U. A. Ukrainskaya, and S. R. Downie. 2016. A taxonomic study of the genus Hellenocarum H. Wolff (Umbelliferae - Apioideae) based on morphology, fruit anatomy, and molecular data. Turkish Journal of Botany 40: 176-193.

  25. Calvi˝o, C. I., F. E. Teruel, and S. R. Downie. 2016. The role of the Southern Hemisphere in the evolutionary history of Apiaceae, a mostly north temperate plant family. Journal of Biogeography 43: 398-409.

  26. Jogesh, T., R. Peery, S. R. Downie, and M. R. Berenbaum. 2015. Patterns of genetic diversity in the globally invasive species wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa). Invasive Plant Science and Management 8: 415-429. Popular press coverage: Bee Culture, the Magazine of American Beekeeping (Feb 1, 2016); AG Professional (Jan 29, 2016); Weed Science Society of America (Feb 14, 2016); Hawaii News Now (Jan 29, 2016).

  27. Wang, Q. Z., M. Huang, S. R. Downie, and Z. Chen. 2015. Genetic diversity and structure of the noxious alien grass Praxelis clematidea in southern China. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 59: 183-189.

  28. Downie, S. R. and R. K. Jansen. 2015. A comparative analysis of whole plastid genomes from the Apiales: Expansions and contraction of the inverted repeat, mitochondrial to plastid transfer of DNA, and identification of highly divergent noncoding regions. Systematic Botany 40: 336-351.

  29. Liu, J., L. Shi, J. Han, G. Li, H. Lu, J. Hou, X. Zhou, F. Meng, and S. R. Downie. 2014. Identification of species in the angiosperm family Apiaceae using DNA barcodes. Molecular Ecology Resources 14: 1231-1238.

  30. Downie, S. R., R. M. Peery, and R. K. Jansen. 2014. Another first for the Apiaceae: evidence for mitochondrial DNA transfer into the plastid genome. Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Istanbul University 44: 131-144.

  31. Wang, Z.-X., S. R. Downie, J.-B. Tan, C.-Y. Liao, Y. Yu, and X.-J. He. 2014. Molecular phylogenetics of Pimpinella and allied genera (Apiaceae), with emphasis on Chinese native species, inferred from nrDNA ITS and cpDNA intron sequence data. Nordic Journal of Botany 32: 642-657.

  32. George, E. E., D. H. Mansfield, J. F. Smith, R. L. Hartman, S. R. Downie, and C. E. Hinchliff. 2014. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple cases of morphological parallelism and taxonomic polyphyly in Lomatium (Apiaceae). Systematic Botany 39: 662-675.

  33. Spalik, K., Ł. Banasiak, M. A. E. Feist, and S. R. Downie. 2014. Recurrent short-distance dispersal explains wide distributions of hydrophytic umbellifers (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae). Journal of Biogeography 41: 1559-1571.

  34. Liao, C.-Y., S. R. Downie, Q. Li, Y. Yu, X.-J. He, and B. Zhou. 2013. New insights into the phylogeny of Angelica and its allies (Apiaceae) with emphasis on East Asian species, inferred from nrDNA, cpDNA, and morphological evidence. Systematic Botany 38: 266-281.

  35. Banasiak, Ł., M. Piwczyński, T. Uliński, S. R. Downie, M. F. Watson, B. Shakya, and K. Spalik. 2013. Dispersal patterns in space and time: a case study of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Journal of Biogeography 40: 1324-1335.

  36. Ming, R., R. VanBuren, Y. Liu, M. Yang, Y. Han, L.-T. Li, Q. Zhang, M.-J. Kim, M. C. Schatz, M. Campbell, J. Li, J. E. Bowers, H. Tang, E. Lyons, A. A. Ferguson, G. Narzisi, D. R. Nelson, C. E. Blaby-Haas, A. R. Gschwend, Y. Jiao, J. P. Der, F. Zeng, J. Han, X. J. Min, K. A. Hudson, R. Singh, A. K. Grennan, S. J. Karpowicz, J. R. Watling, K. Ito, S. A. Robinson, M. E. Hudson, Q. Yu, T. C. Mockler, A. Carroll, Y. Zheng, R. Sunkar, R. Jia, N. Chen, J. Arro, C. M. Wai, E. Wafula, A. Spence, Y. Han, L. Xu, J. Zhang, R. Peery, M. J. Haus, W. Xiong, J. A. Walsh, J. Wu, M.-L. Wang, Y. J. Zhu, R. E. Paull, A. B. Britt, C. Du, S. R. Downie, M. A. Schuler, T. P. Michael, S. P. Long, D. R. Ort, J. W. Schopf, D. R. Gang, N. Jiang, M. Yandell, C. W. dePamphilis, S. S. Merchant, A. H. Paterson, B. B. Buchanan, S. Li, and J. Shen-Miller. 2013. Genome of the long-living sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). Genome Biology 14:R41.

  37. Brullo, C., S. Brullo, S. R. Downie, C. A. Danderson, and G. G. del Galdo. 2013. Siculosciadium, a new monotypic genus of Apiaceae from Sicily. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 99: 1-18.

  38. Liao, C.-Y., S. R. Downie, Y. Yu, and X.-J. He. 2012. Historical biogeography of the Angelica group (Apiaceae tribe Selineae) inferred from analyses of nrDNA and cpDNA sequences. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 50: 206-217.

  39. Feist, M. A. E, S. R. Downie, A. R. Magee, and M. Liu. 2012. Revised generic delimitations for Oxypolis and Ptilimnium (Apiaceae) based on leaf morphology, comparative fruit anatomy, and phylogenetic analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and cpDNA trnQ-trnK intergenic spacer sequence data. Taxon 61(2): 402-418.

  40. Downie, S.R., D. M. Ruffatto, and K. R. Robertson. 2012 to present. Systematics of Plants. Family Notes and Laboratory Exercises for Integrative Biology 335, Systematics of Plants, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Printed and distributed locally. For additional information, refer to Class Homepage.

  41. Yu, Y., S. R. Downie, X. He, X. Deng, and L. Yan. 2011. Phylogeny and biogeography of Chinese Heracleum (Apiaceae tribe Tordylieae) with comments on their fruit morphology. Plant Systematics and Evolution 296: 179-203.

  42. Bone, T. S., S. R. Downie, J. M. Affolter, and K. Spalik. 2011. A phylogenetic and biogeographic study of the genus Lilaeopsis (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae). Systematic Botany 36: 789-805.

  43. Magee, A. R., B.-E. van Wyk, P. M. Tilney, and S. R. Downie. 2010. Phylogenetic position of African and Malagasy Pimpinella species and related genera (Apiaceae, Pimpinelleae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 288: 201-211.

  44. Sun, F.-J. and S. R. Downie. 2010. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data reveal major clades within the perennial, endemic western North American Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 137: 133-156.

  45. Logacheva, M. D., C. M. Valiejo-Roman, G. V. Degtjareva, J. M. Stratton, S. R. Downie, T. H. Samigullin, and M. G. Pimenov. 2010. A comparison of nrDNA ITS and ETS loci for phylogenetic inference in the Umbelliferae: an example from tribe Tordylieae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57: 471-476.

  46. Spalik, K., M. Piwczyński, C. A. Danderson, R. Kurzyna-Młynik, T. S. Bone, and S. R. Downie. 2010. Amphitropic amphiantarctic disjunctions in Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Journal of Biogeography 37: 1977-1994.

  47. Magee, A. R., C. I. Calviño, M. Liu, S. R. Downie, P. M. Tilney, and B.-E. van Wyk. 2010. New tribal delimitations for the early diverging lineages of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Taxon 59: 567-580.

  48. Calviño, C. I., S. G. Martínez, and S. R. Downie. 2010. Unraveling the taxonomic complexity of Eryngium L. (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae): Phylogenetic analysis of 11 non-coding cpDNA loci corroborates rapid radiations. Plant Diversity and Evolution (formerly Botanische Jahrbücher) 128: 137-149.

  49. Downie, S. R., K. Spalik, D. S. Katz-Downie, and J.-P. Reduron. 2010. Major clades within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae as inferred by phylogenetic analysis of nrDNA ITS sequences. Plant Diversity and Evolution (formerly Botanische Jahrbücher) 128: 111-136.

  50. Sun, F.-J. and S. R. Downie. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships among the perennial, endemic Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae of western North America: additional data from the cpDNA trnF-trnL-trnT region continue to support a highly polyphyletic Cymopterus. Plant Diversity and Evolution (formerly Botanische Jahrbücher) 128: 151-172.

  51. Magee, A. R., B.-E. van Wyk, P. M. Tilney, and S. R. Downie. 2010. A taxonomic revision of the South African endemic genus Dasispermum (Apiaceae, Apioideae). South African Journal of Botany 76: 308-323.

  52. Reduron, J.-P., J. Mathez, S. R. Downie, C. A. Danderson, and T. Ostroumova. 2009. Pseudoridolfia, nouveau genre d'Apiaceae découvert au Maroc. Acta Botanica Gallica 156: 487-500.

  53. Magee, A. R., B.-E. van Wyk, P. M. Tilney, F. Sales, I. Hedge, and S. R. Downie. 2009. Billburttia, a new genus of Apiaceae (tribe Apieae) endemic to Madagascar. Plant Systematics and Evolution 283: 237-245.

  54. Feng, T., S. R. Downie, Y. Yu, X. Zhang, W. Chen, X. He, and S. Liu. 2009. Molecular systematics of Angelica and allied genera (Apiaceae) from the Hengduan Mountains of China based on nrDNA ITS sequences: phylogenetic affinities and biogeographic implications. Journal of Plant Research 122: 403-414.

  55. Zhou, J., X. Gong, S. R. Downie, and H. Peng. 2009. Towards a more robust molecular phylogeny of Chinese Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: Additional evidence from nrDNA ITS and cpDNA intron (rpl16 and rps16) sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53: 56-68.

  56. Magee, A. R., B.-E. van Wyk, P. M. Tilney, and S. R. Downie. 2009. Generic delimitations and relationships of the Cape genera Capnophyllum, Dasispermum and Sonderina, the North African genera Krubera and Stoibrax, and a new monotypic genus of the subfamily Apioideae (Apiaceae). Systematic Botany 34: 580-594.

  57. Spalik, K., S. R. Downie, and M. F. Watson. 2009. Generic delimitations within the Sium alliance (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae) inferred from cpDNA rps16-5'trnK(UUU) and nrDNA ITS sequences. Taxon 58: 735-748.

  58. Magee, A. R., B.-E. van Wyk, P. M. Tilney, and S. R. Downie. 2009. A taxonomic revision of Capnophyllum. South African Journal of Botany 75: 283-291.

  59. Tilney, P. M., B.-E. van Wyk, S. R. Downie, and C. I. Calviño. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus Lichtensteinia (Apiaceae) based on morphological, anatomical and DNA sequence data. South African Journal of Botany 75: 64-82.

  60. Magee, A. R., B.-E. van Wyk, P. M. Tilney, and S. R. Downie. 2008. Ezosciadium (Apiaceae): a taxonomic revision of yet another early diverging South African apioid genus. Plant Systematics and Evolution 276: 167-175.

  61. Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie, F.-J. Sun, and C.-S. Lee. 2008. Phylogeny and biogeography of Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae inferred from nuclear rDNA ITS and cpDNA psbI-5'trnK(UUU) sequences, with emphasis on the North American Endemics clade. Botany (formerly Canadian Journal of Botany) 86: 1039-1064.

  62. Kurzyna-Młynik, R., A. A. Oskolski, S. R. Downie, R. Kopacz, A. Wojewódzka, and K. Spalik. 2008. Phylogenetic position of the genus Ferula (Apiaceae) and its placement in tribe Scandiceae as inferred from nrDNA ITS sequence variation. Plant Systematics and Evolution 274: 47-66.

  63. Feist, M. A. E. and S. R. Downie. 2008. A phylogenetic study of Oxypolis and Ptilimnium based on nuclear rDNA ITS sequences. Systematic Botany 33: 447-458.

  64. Sun, F.-J., G. A. Levin, and S. R. Downie. 2008. A multivariate analysis of Pteryxia terebinthina (Apiaceae). Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 135: 81-93.

  65. Calviño, C. I., S. G. Martínez, and S. R. Downie. 2008. The evolutionary history of Eryngium (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae): rapid radiations, long distance dispersals, and hybridizations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 1129-1150.

  66. Calviño, C. I., S. G. Martínez, and S. R. Downie. 2008. Morphology and biogeography of Apiaceae subfamily Saniculoideae as inferred by phylogenetic analysis of molecular data. American Journal of Botany 95(2): 196-214.

  67. Zhou, J., H. Peng, S. R. Downie, Z.-W. Liu, and X. Gong. 2008. A molecular phylogeny of Chinese Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Taxon 57: 402-416.

  68. Ajani, Y., A. Ajani, J. M. Cordes, M. F. Watson, and S. R. Downie. 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of nrDNA ITS sequences reveals relationships within five groups of Iranian Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Taxon 57: 383-401.

  69. Winter, P. J. D., A. R. Magee, N. Phephu, P. M. Tilney, S. R. Downie, and B.-E. van Wyk. 2008. A new generic classification for African peucedanoid species (Apiaceae). Taxon 57: 347-364.

  70. Spalik, K. and S. R. Downie. 2007. Intercontinental disjunctions in Cryptotaenia (Apiaceae, Oenantheae): an appraisal using molecular data. Journal of Biogeography 34: 2039-2054.

  71. Calviño, C. I. and S. R. Downie. 2007. Circumscription and phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Saniculoideae based on chloroplast DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 175-191.

  72. Calviño, C. I., P. M. Tilney, B.-E. van Wyk, and S. R. Downie. 2006. A molecular phylogenetic study of southern African Apiaceae. American Journal of Botany 93(12): 1828-1847.

  73. Sun, F.-J., G. A. Levin, and S. R. Downie. 2006. A multivariate analysis of Pseudocymopterus (Apiaceae). Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 133(4): 499-512.

  74. Lee, C.-S. and S. R. Downie. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships within Cicuta (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae) inferred from nuclear rDNA ITS and cpDNA sequence data. Canadian Journal of Botany 84: 453-468.

  75. Spalik, K. and S. R. Downie. 2006. The evolutionary history of Sium sensu lato (Apiaceae): dispersal, vicariance, and domestication as inferred from ITS rDNA phylogeny. American Journal of Botany 93(5): 747-761.

  76. Hansen, A. K., L. E. Gilbert, B. B. Simpson, S. R. Downie, A. C. Cervi, and R. K. Jansen. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships and chromosome number evolution in Passiflora. Systematic Botany 31(1): 138-150.

  77. Robertson, K. R., S. R. Downie, and S. L. Mason. 2006. Chapter 4, Botany. Pages 4:1-4:50 in R. Kanter (ed.), East Central Illinois Master Naturalist Manual, University of Illinois Extension, Urbana, IL.

  78. Chung, K.-F., C.-I. Peng, S. R. Downie, K. Spalik, and B. A. Schaal. 2005. Molecular systematics of the trans-Pacific alpine genus Oreomyrrhis (Apiaceae): phylogenetic affinities and biogeographic implications. American Journal of Botany 92(12): 2054-2071.

  79. Sun, F.-J., G. A. Levin, and S. R. Downie. 2005. A multivariate analysis of Cymopterus glomeratus, formerly known as C. acaulis (Apiaceae). Rhodora 107(932): 359-385.

  80. Hardway, T. M., K. Spalik, M. F. Watson, D. S. Katz-Downie, and S. R. Downie. 2004. Circumscription of Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae. South African Journal of Botany 70(3): 393-406.

  81. Sun, F-J. and S. R. Downie. 2004. A molecular systematic investigation of Cymopterus and its allies (Apiaceae) based on phylogenetic analyses of nuclear (ITS) and plastid (rps16 intron) DNA sequences. South African Journal of Botany 70(3): 407-416.

  82. Downie, S. R., F.-J. Sun, D. S. Katz-Downie, and G. J. Colletti. 2004. A phylogenetic study of Perideridia (Apiaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. Systematic Botany 29(3): 737-751.

  83. Sun, F-J., S. R. Downie, and R. L. Hartman. 2004. An ITS-based phylogenetic analysis of the perennial, endemic Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae of western North America. Systematic Botany 29(2): 419-431.

  84. Spalik, K., J.-P. Reduron, and S. R. Downie. 2004. The phylogenetic position of Peucedanum sensu lato and allied genera and their placement in tribe Selineae (Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 243: 189-210.

  85. Downie, S. R., R. L. Hartman, F.-J. Sun, and D. S. Katz-Downie. 2002. Polyphyly of the spring-parsleys (Cymopterus): molecular and morphological evidence suggests complex relationships among the perennial endemic taxa of western North American Apiaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 1295-1324.

  86. Spalik, K., A. Wojewódzka, and S. R. Downie. 2001. The evolution of fruit in Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae (Apiaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 79: 1358-1374.

  87. Spalik, K. and S. R. Downie. 2001. The utility of morphological characters for inferring phylogeny in Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae (Apiaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88: 270-301.

  88. Watson, M. F., G. M. Plunkett, S. R. Downie, and P. P. Lowry II. 2001. Introduction: evolution, biogeography and systematics of the Apiales (Araliaceae and Apiaceae). Edinburgh Journal of Botany 58(2): 179-181.

  89. Downie, S. R., G. M. Plunkett, M. F. Watson, K. Spalik, D. S. Katz-Downie, C. M. Valiejo-Roman, E. I. Terentieva, A. V. Troitsky, B.-Y. Lee, J. Lahham, and A. El-Oqlah. 2001. Tribes and clades within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: the contribution of molecular data. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 58(2): 301-330.

  90. Spalik, K., A. Wojewódzka, and S. R. Downie. 2001. Delimitation of genera in Apiaceae with examples from Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 58(2): 331-346.

  91. Lee, B-Y., G. A Levin, and S. R. Downie. 2001. Relationships within the spiny-fruited umbellifers (Scandiceae subtribes Daucinae and Torilidinae) as assessed by phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters. Systematic Botany 26(3): 622-642.

  92. Downie, S. R., M. F. Watson, K. Spalik, and D. S. Katz-Downie. 2000. Molecular systematics of Old World Apioideae (Apiaceae): relationships among some members of tribe Peucedaneae sensu lato, the placement of several island-endemic species, and resolution within the apioid superclade. Canadian Journal of Botany 78: 506-528.

  93. Clarke, H. D., S. R. Downie, and D. S. Seigler. 2000. Implications of chloroplast DNA restriction site variation for systematics of Acacia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Systematic Botany 25: 618-632.

  94. Plunkett, G. M. and S. R. Downie. 2000. Expansion and contraction of the chloroplast inverted repeat in Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Systematic Botany 25: 648-667.

  95. Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie, and K. Spalik. 2000. A phylogeny of Apiaceae tribe Scandiceae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. American Journal of Botany 87: 76-95.

  96. Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie, and M. F. Watson. 2000. A phylogeny of the flowering plant family Apiaceae based on chloroplast DNA rpl16 and rpoC1 intron sequences: towards a suprageneric classification of subfamily Apioideae. American Journal of Botany 87: 273-292.

  97. Lee, B.-Y. and S. R. Downie. 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of cpDNA restriction sites and rps16 intron sequences reveals relationships among Apiaceae tribes Caucalideae, Scandiceae and related taxa. Plant Systematics and Evolution 221: 35-60.

  98. Katz-Downie, D. S., C. M. Valiejo-Roman, E. I. Terentieva, A. V. Troitsky, M. G. Pimenov, B.-Y. Lee, and S. R. Downie. 1999. Towards a molecular phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: additional information from nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. Plant Systematics and Evolution 216: 167-195.

  99. Downie, S. R. and D. S. Katz-Downie. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast rps16 intron sequences reveals relationships within the woody southern African Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Canadian Journal of Botany 77: 1120-1135.

  100. Plunkett, G. M. and S. R. Downie. 1999. Major lineages within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: a comparison of chloroplast restriction site and DNA sequence data. American Journal of Botany 86: 1014-1026.

  101. Lee, B.-Y. and S. R. Downie. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of Apiaceae tribe Caucalideae and related taxa: inferences based on ITS sequence data. Systematic Botany 24: 461-479.

  102. Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie, E. J. Rogers, H. L. Zujewski, and E. Small. 1998. Multiple independent losses of the plastid rpoC1 intron in Medicago (Fabaceae) as inferred from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Canadian Journal of Botany 76: 791-803.

  103. Valiejo-Roman, C. M., M. G. Pimenov, E. I. Terentieva, S. R. Downie, D. S. Katz-Downie, and A. V. Troitsky. 1998. Molecular systematics of the Umbelliferae: using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences to resolve issues of evolutionary relationships. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 83: 1-22.

  104. Campagna, M. L. and S. R. Downie. 1998. The intron in chloroplast gene rpl16 is missing from the flowering plant families Geraniaceae, Goodeniaceae, and Plumbaginaceae. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 91: 1-11.

  105. Downie, S. R., S. Ramanath, D. S. Katz-Downie, and E. Llanas. 1998. Molecular systematics of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer and plastid rpoC1 intron sequences. American Journal of Botany 85: 563-591.

  106. Cosner, M. E., R. K. Jansen, J. D. Palmer, and S. R. Downie. 1997. The highly rearranged chloroplast genomes of Trachelium caeruleum (Campanulaceae): multiple inversions, inverted repeat expansion and contraction, transposition, insertions/deletions, and several repeat families. Current Genetics 31: 419-429.

  107. Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie, and K.-J. Cho. 1997. Relationships in the Caryophyllales as suggested by phylogenetic analyses of partial chloroplast DNA ORF2280 homolog sequences. American Journal of Botany 84: 253-273.

  108. Downie, S. R., E. Llanas, and D. S. Katz-Downie. 1996. Multiple independent losses of the rpoC1 intron in angiosperm chloroplast DNAs. Systematic Botany 21: 135-151.

  109. Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie, and K.-J. Cho. 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae using nucleotide sequences from the chloroplast rpoC1 intron. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 6(1): 1-18.

  110. Downie, S. R. and D. S. Katz-Downie. 1996. A molecular phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. American Journal of Botany 83(2): 234-251.

  111. Halls, S. C., S. R. Downie, and Govindjee. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of photosystems I and II reaction center protein sequences. In P. Mathis (ed.), Photosynthesis: From Light to Biosphere, Vol. I, 955-958. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

  112. Downie, S. R., D. S. Katz-Downie, K. H. Wolfe, P. J. Calie, and J. D. Palmer. 1994. Structure and evolution of the largest chloroplast gene (ORF2280): internal plasticity and multiple gene loss during angiosperm evolution. Current Genetics 25: 367-378.

  113. Downie, S. R. and J. D. Palmer. 1994. Erratum: A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of the Caryophyllales based on structural and inverted repeat restriction site variation. Systematic Botany 19(3): 487.

  114. Downie, S. R. and J. D. Palmer. 1994. A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of the Caryophyllales based on structural and inverted repeat restriction site variation. Systematic Botany 19: 236-252.

  115. Palmer, J. D., S. R. Downie, J. M. Nugent, P. Brandt, M. Unseld, M. Klein, A. Brennicke, W. Schuster, and T. Borner. 1994. Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs of Arabidopsis thaliana: conventional genomes in an unconventional plant. In E. M. Meyerowitz and C. R. Somerville (eds.), Arabidopsis, 37-62. Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, NY.

  116. Downie, S. R. and J. D. Palmer. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships using restriction site variation of the chloroplast DNA inverted repeat. In H.-D. Behnke and T. H. Mabry (eds.), Caryophyllales: Evolution and Systematics, 223-233. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.

  117. Knox, E., S. R. Downie, and J. D. Palmer. 1993. Chloroplast genome rearrangements and the evolution of giant lobelias from herbaceous ancestors. Molecular Biology and Evolution 10: 414-430.

  118. Downie, S. R. and J. D. Palmer. 1992. Use of chloroplast DNA rearrangements in reconstructing plant phylogeny. In P. S. Soltis, D. E. Soltis, and J. J. Doyle (eds.), Molecular Systematics of Plants, 14-35. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY.

  119. Downie, S. R. and J. D. Palmer. 1992. Restriction site mapping of the chloroplast DNA inverted repeat: a molecular phylogeny of the Asteridae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79(2): 266-283.

  120. Downie, S. R., R. G. Olmstead, G. Zurawski, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, J. Watson, and J. D. Palmer. 1991. Six independent losses of the chloroplast DNA rpl2 intron in dicotyledons: molecular and phylogenetic implications. Evolution 45(5): 1245-1259.

  121. Olmstead, R. G., R. K. Jansen, H. J. Michaels, S. R. Downie, and J. D. Palmer. 1990. Chloroplast DNA and phylogenetic studies in the Asteridae. In S. Kawano (ed.), Biological Approaches and Evolutionary Trends in Plants, 119-134. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

  122. Palmer, J. D., P. J. Calie, C. W. dePamphilis, J. M. Logsdon, Jr., D. S. Katz-Downie, and S. R. Downie. 1990. An evolutionary genetic approach to understanding plastid gene function: lessons from photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic plants. In M. Baltscheffsky (ed.), Current Research in Photosynthesis, Vol. III, 475-482. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

  123. Price, R. A., P. J. Calie, S. R. Downie, J. M. Logsdon, Jr., and J. D. Palmer. 1990. Chloroplast DNA variation in the Geraniaceae -- a preliminary report. In P. Vorster (ed.), Proceedings of the International Geraniaceae Symposium, 235-244. University of Stellenbosch, Monvilla, South Africa.

  124. Downie, S. R. and J. McNeill. 1990. The taxonomic status of Euphrasia randii (Scrophulariaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 68(7): 1531-1535.

  125. Downie, S. R., A. Quintin, and J. McNeill. 1988. Le statut des Euphrasia borealis, E. nemorosa et E. stricta dans l'est de l'Amérique du Nord: une analyse numérique. Canadian Journal of Botany 66(11): 2208-2216.

  126. Downie, S. R. and J. McNeill. 1988. Description and distribution of Euphrasia stricta in North America. Rhodora 90: 223-231.

  127. Downie, S. R. 1988. Morphological, cytological and flavonoid variability of the Arnica angustifolia aggregate (Asteraceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 66(1): 24-29.

  128. Downie, S. R. and K. E. Denford. 1988. Taxonomy of Arnica subgenus Arctica. Rhodora 90: 245-275.

  129. Downie, S. R. and K. E. Denford. 1988. Flavonoid variation in Arnica subgenus Arctica. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 16: 133-137.

  130. Downie, S. R. 1987. A biosystematic study of Arnica subgenus Arctica. 2007. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

  131. Downie, S. R. 1987. Arnica lonchophylla Greene. In K. M. Pryer and G. W. Argus (eds.), Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario, Part 4. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada.

  132. Downie, S. R. and K. E. Denford. 1987. The biosystematics of Arnica fulgens and A. sororia (Asteraceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 65(3): 559-570.

  133. Downie, S. R. and K. E. Denford. 1986. The flavonoids of Arnica frigida and A. louiseana (Asteraceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 64(11): 2748-2752.

  134. Downie, S. R. and K. E. Denford. 1986. The taxonomy of Arnica frigida and A. louiseana (Asteraceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 64(7): 1355-1372.

  135. Downie, S. R. 1985. Chromosome number reports LXXXVIII. Taxon 34: 550.