ASU logo

UIUC logo

  Home   Group Sites   Subject Sites   Individual Sites   Educational Sites    Other  


Group Sites

Subject Sites
     Broad Overview
     Artificial Photosynthesis
     Oxygen Evolution/OEC/Water splitting
     Bioenergy & Photosynthesis
     Light-Independent Reactions
     PSU/Reaction Centers
     Light Harvesting/Antenna
     Electron Transfer
     Cytochrome/Cyt Oxidase
     ATP Synthase
     C3, C4, CAM
     Chlorophyll Fluorescence
     Whole Plant/Plant Stress
     Bacterial Photosynthesis
     Environment/Climate Change

Individual Researcher's Sites

Sites for Educators/Students
     Educational Sites
     Lesson Plans

     Knowledge/Videos/Social Networks

     Books, Journals & Magazines
     Societies & Organizations
     Databases/Genome Projects
     Vendors/Commercial Suppliers


Photosynthesis Web Resources
Larry Orr (ASU) and Govindjee (UIUC)


Other Useful Sites

A. Books, Journals and Magazines

Although books about photosynthesis have not been placed online for economic reasons, there are Web sites that discuss them and commercial sites that sell them. Some of those sites will be listed here. Many of them will include reviews or summaries and list the table of contents – some may even provide a sample chapter. Many journals are now becoming available online, but usually only to university libraries that pay for the service. Many universities have discovered that it is cost effective (cheaper) to subscribe to the online journals on behalf of their students and faculty, than it is to try and subscribe to the hard copy versions of the journal which must be cataloged and archived by library personnel and is only available to one person at a time. Occasionally a hard copy of the journal is unavailable due to misfiling or because it has been sent out to be bound with other issues. The online version is always available and to as many persons as the library has paid for. Even if the journal issue is not available, the journal publisher’s Web site will often contain the table of contents, abstracts, instructions to authors, and sometimes sample issues or articles. Some authors have also maintained certain rights to the papers or chapters they write allowing them to include them on their personal Web pages. Checking an author’s Web site for publication lists will reveal online access if the article shows up as a link. More articles are becoming available as funding agencies insist on public access to research funded by taxpayer money.

The most current set of books on photosynthesis and related matters is the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration series being published by Springer, with one of us (G) serving as its Series Editor. See Fig. 18. From volume 31 (2010), Thomas Sharkey has joined Govindjee as a co-series editor. Descriptions, free front matter and ordering information can be found at the Springer site (; also see (for volumes 1–18); ( for volumes 19–25; and The series currently contains 36 volumes with more in press and several in preparation. Published volumes are listed below (we list their Web site or, when available, Table of Contents and free downloadable Front Matter:

PSRES covers

Fig. 18. Four books from the series Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration. Series Editors: Volumes 1–30 (Govindjee); Volumes 31– present (Govindjee and Thomas Sharkey). See:

1. The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria – edited by Donald A. Bryant (

2. Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria – edited by Robert E. Blankenship, Michael T. Madigan, and Carl E. Bauer (

3. Biophysical Techniques in Photosynthesis – edited by Jan Amesz and Arnold J. Hoff. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

4. Oxygenic Photosynthesis: The Light Reactions – edited by Donald R. Ort and Charles F. Yocum (

5. Photosynthesis and the Environment – edited by Neil R. Baker. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

6. Lipids in Photosynthesis: Structure, Function and Genetics – edited by Paul André Siegenthaler and Norio Murata. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

7. The Molecular Biology of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria in Chlamydomonas – edited by Jean David Rochaix, Michel Goldschmidt-Clermont and Sabeeha Merchant. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

8. The Photochemistry of Carotenoids – edited by Harry A. Frank, Andrew J. Young, George Britton and Richard J. Cogdell. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

9. Photosynthesis: Physiology and Metabolism – edited by Richard C. Leegood, Thomas D. Sharkey and Susanne von Caemmerer. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

10. Photosynthesis: Photobiochemistry and Photobiophysics – authored by Bacon Ke.

11. Regulation of Photosynthesis – edited by Eva-Mari Aro and Bertil Andersson. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

12. Photosynthetic Nitrogen Assimilation and Associated Carbon and Respiratory Metabolism – edited by Christine Foyer and Graham Noctor. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

13. Light-Harvesting Antennas in Photosynthesis – edited by Beverley R. Green and William W. Parson:

14. Photosynthesis in Algae – edited by Anthony W. D. Larkum, S. E. Douglas and John A. Raven:

15. Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria: Diversity of Prokaryotic Electron Transport Carriers – edited by Davide Zannoni:

16. Respiration in Archaea and Bacteria: Diversity of Prokaryotic Respiratory Systems – edited by Davide Zannoni: For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

17. Plant Mitochondria: From Genome to Function – edited by David A. Day, A. Harvey Millar and James Whelan:

18. Plant Respiration: From Cell to Ecosystem – edited by Hans Lambers and Miquel Ribas-Carbo. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

19. Chlorophyll a Fluorescence: A Signature of Photosynthesis – edited by George C. Papageorgiou and Govindjee. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

20. Discoveries in Photosynthesis – edited by Govindjee, J. Thomas Beatty, Howard Gest and John F. Allen. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents: This Web site shows the XVI sections of the book. To see all the historical papers, click on the roman numbers of each section. A unique thing about this book is that it lists, in a section called “In Memoriam”, the birth and death years of a large number of past photosynthesis researchers, as of 2005; this list is included in the free downloadable Back Matter.

21. Photoprotection, Photoinhibition, Gene Regulation and Environment – edited by Barbara Demmig-Adams, William Adams III and Autar K. Mattoo. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

22. Photosystem II: The Light-Driven Water:Plastoquinone Oxidoreductase – edited by Thomas J. Wydrzynski and Kimiyuki Satoh. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

23. Structure and Function of the Plastids – edited by Robert Wise and J. Kenneth Hoober. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

24. Photosystem I: The Light-Driven Plastocyanin:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase – edited by John H. Golbeck. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

25. Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls: Biochemistry, Biophysics, Functions and Applications – edited by Bernhard Grimm, Robert Porra, Wolfhart Rüdiger and Hugo Scheer. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

26. Biophysical Techniques in Photosynthesis II – edited by Thijs J. Aartsma and Jörg Matysik. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

27. Sulfur Metabolism in Phototrophic Organisms – edited by R. Hell, C. Dahl, D. B. Knaff and Th. Leustek. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

28. The Purple Phototrophic Bacteria – edited by C. Neil Hunter, Fevzi Daldal, Marion C. Thurnauer and J. Thomas Beatty. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

29. Photosynthesis in Silico: Understanding Complexity from Molecules to Ecosystems – edited by Agu Laisk, Ladislav Nedbal and Govindjee. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents:

30. Lipids in Photosynthesis – edited by Hajime Wada and Norio Murata. For downloading free Front Matter and to see Table of Contents: [Note that beginning with this volume (30), all colored figures are within the chapters, and, thus, not available in the free downloadable Front Matter]

31. The Chloroplast – edited by C. A. Rebeiz, C. Benning, H. J. Bohnert, H. Daniell, J. K. Hoober, H. K. Lichtenthaler, A. R. Portis and B. C. Tripathy:

32. C-4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms – edited by A.S. Raghavendra and R.F. Sage:

33. Functional Genomics and Evolution of Photosynthetic Systems – edited by Robert Burnap and Wim Vermass:

34. Photosynthesis: Plastid Biology, Energy Conversion and Carbon Assimilation – edited by Julian Eaton-Rye, Baishnab C. Tripathy and Thomas D. Sharkey:

35. Genomics of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria – edited by Ralph Bock and Volker Knoop:

36. Plastid Development in Leaves during Growth and Senescence – edited by Basanti Biswal, Karin Krupinska and Udaya C. Biswal:

Other books of note are (we have taken the liberty of listing some specialty books as well):

Aquatic Photosynthesis, 2nd Edition (2007), by Paul G. Falkowski (Brookhaven National Lab) and John Raven (University of Dundee). It is published by Princeton University Press. It has ten thorough chapters and eight nice colored plates. One of us (G) gives it high marks, “It’s a great book. It will be very useful for all biologists and oceanographers.” It is available at (

Artificial Photosynthesis: From Basic Biology to Industrial Application (2005), edited by Anthony F. Collings and Christa Critchley:

Bioenergetic Processes of Cyanobacteria From Evolutionary Singularity to Ecological Diversity (2011), edited by G.A. Peschek, C. Obinger and G. Renger, is available at . This book has an important photosynthetic content

C3, C4 : Mechanisms and Cellular and Environmental Regulation of Photosynthesis (1983), by Gerald Edwards and David Walker. A digital edition is available for free download from: Also, copies are sometimes available on

Concepts in Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis (1999), edited by Gauri S. Singhal, Gernot Renger, Sudhir K. Sopory, Klaus Dieter Irrgang and Govindjee (

Earth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet (2010), by Bill McKibben, published by Times Books. McKibben, a well-known and popular environmental writer, writes from the point-of-view that climate change has already started and cannot be contained. The author does manage to maintain a positive outlook despite the problems caused by the projected climate change:

Eating the Sun: How Plants Power the Planet (2004), by Oliver Morton, published by Fourth State. It is a ‘must’ reading for all, even those only remotely interested in Photosynthesis. It is available from and other sources. His blog for the book is Heliophage and can be found at: and his Twitter site is See additional information at

Energy Transduction in Biological Membranes. A Textbook of Bioenergetics (1989), by William A. Cramer and David B. Knaff. See a book review by B.A. Barry at: It is a thorough textbook that all graduate students must read.

Membrane Biophysics (2000), by H. Ti Tien and Angelica Ottova-Leitmannova. It was published by Elsevier and complete details are available at:

Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis (2002), by Robert E. Blankenship. Available at: It is a Wiley-Blackwell book: ( This is an excellent introduction to photosynthesis and is a great text for college-level courses. We recommend it to all our readers.

Molecular Solar Fuels (RSC Energy and Environment Series) (2011), edited by Thomas J. Wydrzynski and Warwick Hillier, is found at <>.  The book points out that “World demand for energy is rapidly increasing and is projected to more than double by the year 2050. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of the major scientific challenges of today”. This book deals very well with this topic.

Molecular to Global Photosynthesis (2004), edited by Mary D. Archer and James Barber. See:

Photobiology: The Science of Light and Life, 2nd Edition, edited by Lars Olof Björn, has a clear and a thorough discussion on “Light,” its measurement and use in biology, including photosynthesis. See its Table of Contents at the following Website:

Photosynthesis, 6th Edition (1999), by David O. Hall and Krishna K. Rao has gone through several editions and is still one of the best entry-level textbooks for the study of photosynthesis ( Both the authors are now deceased. We hope that someone will take the challenge and produce an equally simple book.

Photosynthesis, 3rd Edition, by David Lawlor, is a good overall book. A reviewer wrote, “This monograph gives a comprehensive overview of photosynthetic system.” The book is available from (

Photosynthesis: A Comprehensive Treatise (1998, edited by Agepati S. Raghavendra, is found at (Cambridge Press).

Photosynthesis Research Protocols (2004), edited by Robert Carpentier. It is available at ( Also see:

Photosynthetic Excitons (2000), by Herbert van Amerongen, Leonas Valkunas and Rienk van Grondelle (

Photosynthetic Unit and Photosystems-History of Research and Current Views (Relationship of Structure and Function)(1997), by A. Wild and R. Ball ( (Buckuys Publishers). Its ISBN is: 90-73348-70-6.

Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (1997), by Hans-Walter Heldt (Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Göttingen) (with the collaboration of Fiona Heldt) is found at (Oxford University Press).

Primary Processes of Photosynthesis: Principles and Apparatus (2008), edited by Gernot Renger, is an excellent book that deals with the very first steps of photosynthesis; it is available at <>. See Govindjee (2010) Photosynthesis Research 103: 161-163, for a detailed review.

Probing Photosynthesis: Mechanism, Regulation & Adaptation (2000), edited by Mohammad Yunus, Uday Pathre and Prasanna Mohanty ( See:

Stress Biology of Cyanobacteria: Molecular Mechanisms to Cellular Processes (2013), edited by A.K. Srivastava, A.N. Rai and B.A. Neilan, has important photosynthesis content, and since cyanobacteria, like algae, are important for Bioenergy, we list this volume as an important addition to the field. See

Sustainable Energy – Without the Hot Air, by David J. C. MacKay, is a highly recommended book that covers sustainable energy in a straightforward, non-sensational manner (hence, without hot air); one section is titled, “Numbers, not adjectives,” to indicate that science is more important than political hype. It is available as a paperback book, a free downloadable PDF file, and even chapter-by-chapter on the Web. There are even Kindle and epub versions for digital readers. Access is at:

The Photosynthetic Membrane: Molecular Mechanisms and Biophysics of Light Harvesting (2012), by A. Ruban, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, is a welcome addition to the field of photosynthesis;

Walker books

Fig. 19. Some of the great books written by David Walker,

Before he passed away, David Walker produced a wonderful set of books that approach photosynthesis from several different angles and which are written for several age groups. See Fig. 19. Most are available as free downloads (in accord with the principle of fair-use) from Hansatech Instruments  and the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (ISPR).

1. Energy, Plants and Man:,Plants%20and%20Man.pdf

2. Global Climate Change:

3. A Leaf in Time: A Spanish version, “Una Hoja a Través del Tiempo” is also available:

4. Like Clockwork:

5. A New Leaf in Time:

 6. Use of the Oxygen Electrode:

Our favorites are: A Leaf in Time (for ages 8 – 12) which discusses photosynthesis and its relationship to energy, plants and people; A New Leaf in Time (much longer, in PDF format only and with copious hyperlinks, for ages 9 – 99); Energy, Plants and Man, a large, profusely illustrated book with a great deal of information presented in an uncomplicated and humorous manner and is perfect for the classroom (high school, early college) or for just plain enjoyable reading. Like Clockwork is a book in PDF format on a CD/ROM disk (Fig. 17). It covers the story of energy transduction in photosynthesis in an easily understood manner and contains many interesting links, including some. The International Society for Photosynthesis Research and Hansatech company have also made his works available in PDF format at

An early classic Photosynthesis by Eugene Rabinowitch and Govindjee, John Wiley (1969) is available free at:

Links to older volumes and books intended for young readers and the general public can be found at

Scholarly Journals

The following journals are peer-reviewed journals with established credentials. There has been a plethora of recently announced open-access scientific journals. Some of these are peer-reviewed, but many are not and may be defined as vanity journals with little editorial oversight. Until the field has settled, we will only list confirmed peer-reviewed journals.

Archives of Microbiology (

Functional Plant Biology (

Biochemistry (

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) ( ion#description)

Biomass & Bioenergy (  #description)

Biophysical Journal (

Cell (

FEBS Letters (

Journal of American Chemical Society (JACS) (

Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy (

Journal of Biological Chemistry (

Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design )

Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology (JPP) ( )

Journal of Physical Chemistry A (

Journal of Physical Chemistry B (

Journal of Physical Chemistry C (

Nature (

Photochemistry and Photobiology ( )

Photosynthesis Research ( the official journal of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (ISPR) (

Photosynthetica (

Plant Molecular Biology (

Plant Physiology (

Proceedings of the National Academy Of Sciences (USA) (PNAS) (

Protein Science (

Science (

Magazines of Interest to the General Public


Current Science ( (grades 6–10)

Discover (

E Magazine (

Environment (

Grist (

National Geographic (

National Wildlife (

New Scientist (

Orion (

Physics Today (

Popular Mechanics (

Popular Science (

Science Illustrated ( )

Science News (

Scientific American (

Seed (

Smithsonian (

Wired (

World and I (

Yes! (

B. Societies and Organizations

Some selected ones are listed below:

ISPR – International Society of Photosynthesis Research ( For only $80 (students and some others pay even less), you can become a member and get free online access to the international journal Photosynthesis Research, discounts on books and numerous other benefits. Further, ISPR members receive a discount on all books in the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration series published by Springer (

American Chemical Society:

American Society for Horticultural Science:

ASP – American Society for Photobiology:

ASPB – American Society of Plant Biologists [formerly American Society of Plant Physiologists (ASPP)]:

Biophysical Society:

ESP – European Society for Photobiology (

-American Photochemical Society:

International Carotenoid Society:

Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists:

Phycological Society of America:

World Watch Institute:, presents information on many important issues, including climate change, environmental and energy matters.

C. Databases and Genome Projects

A Wikipedia article on biological databases lists many useful links:

The Arabidopsis Information Resource: TAIR (

Chlamydomonas Center:

Cyanosite: the Genome Database for Cyanobacteria:


Protein Data Bank (PDB):

Rhodobacter sphaeroides genome project:

D. Vendors and Commercial Suppliers

The following vendors that provide supplies, products and equipment for photosynthesis research have requested that we list contacts to their sites. These are provided as a service and no endorsement is implied.


Analytical Spectral Devices--field portable spectroradiometers:

Chemical Register:

CID, Inc.--hand held photosynthesis measuring systems:

DMP Ltd.--photosynthesis measuring systems:


EARS—Environmental Analysis and Remote Sensing:

Fisher Scientific:

Hansatech Instruments: We want to commend Hansatch for making most of David Walker’s publications available at

Li-Cor Environmental Division:

Olis--equipment for photosynthesis research:

Opti-Sciences, Inc.--chlorophyll fluorometers:

Photon Systems Instruments:

PP Systems--photosynthesis, chorophyll fluorescence, spectrometers, environmental sensors:

Walz Company--instruments to measure gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence:





Author Contact Information :

Larry Orr
ASU Center for Bioenergy & Photosynthesis
LightWorks and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Arizona State University
Box 871604
Tempe, AZ 85287-1604, USA
Phone:  1-480-965-1963  
Fax: 1-480-965-2747
Meet the author

Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Plant Biology
Departments of Biochemistry and Plant Biology and Center of Biophysics and Computational Biology
University of Illinois
265 Morrill Hall, MC-116
505 South Goodwin Avenue
Urbana, IL 61801-3707, USA
Phone: 1-217-337-0627  
Fax: 1-217-244-7246 
Meet the author

This Website is based on the Educational Review: Photosynthesis Web Resources. Photosynthesis Research (2013) 115: 179–214, DOI: 10.1007/s11120-013-9840-3

Please contact the authors with any broken links, corrections or suggestions