Celebrating the Millennium:

Historical Highlights of Photosynthesis Research, Part 3

Guest Editors: Govindjee, John F. Allen & J. Thomas Beatty

Celebrating forty years of the Conference on ‘Photosynthetic Mechanisms of Green Plants’ at Airlie House, Virginia, led by Bessel Kok and Andre Jagendorf

Acceptance of the Enrico Fermi Award by Martin Kamen (April 24, 1996)

Color section

Obituaries: AndrŽe Pirson (1910–2004) and Lawrence Bogorad (1921–2003)

Introduction and Timelines

Celebrating the millennium: historical highlights of photosynthesis research, Part 3 Govindjee, J.F. Allen, J.T. Beatty 1–13

Discoveries in oxygenic photosynthesis (1727–2003): a perspective Govindjee, D. Krogmann 15–57

Time line of discoveries: anoxygenic bacterial photosynthesis H. Gest, R.E. Blankenship 59–70


The contributions of James Franck to photosynthesis research: a tribute J.L. Rosenberg 71–76

Samuel Ruben’s contributions to research on photosynthesis and bacterialmetabolism with radioactive carbon H. Gest 77–83

Reaction Centers and Photosystems

Steps on the way to building blocks, topologies, crystals and X-ray structural analysis of Photosystems I and II of water-oxidizing photosynthesis H.T. Witt 85–107

Unraveling the Photosystem I reaction center: a history, or the sum of many efforts P. Fromme, P. Mathis 109–124

Early indications formanganese oxidation state changes during photosynthetic oxygen production: a personal account T.J. Wydrzynski 125–135

Engine of life and big bang of evolution: a personal perspective J. Barber 137–155

My daily constitutional in Martinsried J.P. Allen 157–163

Light-Harvesting and Pigment-Protein Complexes

Chlorophyll chemistry before and after crystals of photosynthetic reaction centers J. Fajer 165–172

Purple bacterial light-harvesting complexes: from dreams to structures R.J. Cogdell, H. Hashimoto, A.T. Gardiner 173–179

The FMO protein J.M. Olson 181–187

How the chlorophyll-proteins got their names E.L. Camm, B.R. Green 189–196

Electron Transport, Proton Gradients, and ATP

Protons, proteins and ATP W. Junge 197–221

The Q-cycle – a personal perspective A.R. Crofts 223–243

On why thylakoids energize ATP formation using either delocalized or localized proton gradients – a Ca2+ mediated role in thylakoid stress responses R.A. Dilley 245–263

The unfinished story of cytochrome f D.S. Bendall 265–276

The isolation of a functional cytochrome b6 f complex: from lucky encounter to rewarding experiences G. Hauska 277–291

Ironiesin photosynthetic electron transport: a personal perspective W.A. Cramer 293–305

Reductive Processes

How is ferredoxin-NADP reductase involved in the NADP photoreduction of chloroplasts? M. Shin 307–313

Research on carbon dioxide fixation in photosynthetic microorganisms (1971–present) F.R. Tabita 315–332


From chloroplasts to chaperones: how one thing led to another R.J. Ellis 333–343

Chloroplasts in living cells and the string-of-grana concept of chloroplast structure revisited S.G. Wildman, A.M. Hirsch, S.J. Kirchanski, D. Spencer 345–352

Regulation of photosystem synthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus C. Bauer 353–360


The archaeal concept and the world it lives in: a retrospective C.R. Woese 361–372

Thinking about the evolution of photosynthesis J.M. Olson, R.E. Blankenship 373–386

Techniques and Applications

The stopped-flowmethod and chemical intermediates in enzyme reactions – a personal essay B. Chance 387–400

Trails of green alga hydrogen research – from Hans Gaffron to new frontiers A. Melis, T. Happe 401–409

Engineering the chloroplast encoded proteins of Chlamydomonas L. Xiong, R.T. Sayre 411–419

Pictorial demonstrations of photosynthesis R.P. Hangarter, H. Gest 421–425


Passage of a young Indian physical chemist through the world of photosynthesis research at Urbana, Illinois, in the 1960s: a personal essay A.K. Ghosh 427–437

The conference at Airlie House in 1963 H.J. Rurainski 439–446

A list of photosynthesis conferences and of edited books in photosynthesis Govindjee 447–460

Author index Volume 80