1958 Entered Gonville and Caius College, University of Cambridge,England.
1958-61 Natural Sciences Tripos Parts I and II, Honours Class2:1 in Biochemistry.
1961 Expedition Physiologist, Cambridge Arctic Canada Expedition.
1961-64 MRC Research Assistantship in Dept. of Biochemistry, U.of Cambridge.
1964-65 Temporary Assistant Lecturer in Biochemistry at Universityof Bristol.
1965 Dissertation for the Ph.D. degree accepted at the Universityof Cambridge.
1965-66 Visiting Research Physiologist at the University of California,Berkeley.
1966-74 Lecturer in Biochemistry at the University of Bristol.
1974-77 Reader in Biochemistry at the University of Bristol.
1978-92 Professor of Biophysics, Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics,U. of Illinois at Urbana.
1978-91 Chairman of Biophysics Division, University of Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign.
1983 Professeur au College de France (Visiting), May-June.
1989- Professor, Beckman Institute, University of Illinois
1992- Professor of Biophysics, Dept. of Microbiology, U. of Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign
1992- Professor of Microbiology, Dept. of Microbiology, U. ofIllinois at Urbana-Champaign
1995 Acting-Chair, Program in Biophysics and Computational Biology,UIUC
1996-98 Associate Dean, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, UIUC
1998- Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, U. of Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign
1957 State Scholarship.
1958-61 Major Scholar in Natural Science, Gonville and Caius College,U. of Cambridge.
1961 Medical Research Council Research Studentship.
1974 Reader in Biochemistry, University of Bristol.
1982 Melandri Lecture and Medal, 2nd. EBEC Meeting, Lyon.
1983 Francis I Medal, College de France
1985 John Simon Guggenheim Fellow.
1989-92 University Senior Scholar, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
1991 Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science
1992 C.F. Kettering Award and Prize, American Society for PlantPhysiology.
2004 Lars Ernster Memorial Lecture, Stockholm
Our work is based on the complementarity between biophysical, structural and molecular engineering approaches to the study of biological mechanism. Molecular engineering protocols have provided tools for modification of protein structure, but their utility is greatly increased by combining them with other approaches. Most importantly, knowledge of the structure of the target protein, and the ability to assay the functional consequences of specific mutagenesis, make it possible to explore the mechanism of catalysis at the molecular level.
Other past interests include biophysical aspects of electron transfer and the coupling to ATP synthesis through the proton gradient, studies of the control of photosynthetic electron transfer in the coupled steady-state; the supramolecular organization of electron transfer chains; the mechanism and evolution of the cyt bc1/b6f family of complexes in plants and bacteria; the mechanism of action of inhibitors (including herbicides); and the role of thioredoxin in activation and control of chloroplast ATP-ase and other enzymes, and the control and modulation of photosynthesis in intact plants in the laboratory and under field conditions. We have developed novel instruments that allow us to explore individual reactions of the photosynthetic apparatus in intact plants. We are using these in the lab and in the field to try to understand how photosynthesis is regulated under natural conditions, including studies of the mechanisms of down regulation in strong light, photoinhibition, and response to environmental stress.
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