History of Biology

Integrative Biology 494/History 465

Fall 2004

Development of biological thought from antiquity to the present, emphasizing evolutionary theory and physiology in the nineteenth century and genetics in the twentieth century.
Professor Burkhardt
Aug. 26 Introduction to the History of Biology
Aug 31 Physiology and Medicine in Antiquity and the Renaissance
(Readings: Harvey, The Motion of the Heart and Blood, chapters I - VII.)
Part I: THE FOUNDATIONS OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY
Sept. 2 William Harvey and the Circulation of the Blood
(Readings: Harvey, chapters VIII - XVII.)
Sept. 7 Paracelsus vs. Descartes -- Renaissance Magic and the Mechanical Philosophy of the 17th Century
(Readings: René Descartes, Discourse on Method, part five, at http://www.clas.ufl.edu/users/gthursby/psi/demethod.htm.)
Sept. 9 Microscopes and the Problem of Generation
(Readings: E. G. Ruestow, "Leeuwenhoek's perception of the spermatozoa," at http://zygote.swarthmore.edu/fert1a.html.).
Sept. 14 Making sense of Nature's diversity in the 18th Century
(Readings: Lisbet Koerner, "Carl Linnaeus in his Time and Place," from Cultures of Natural History, pp. 145-162, in History 465 Reader.)
Sept. 16 Physiology and the Experimental Method in the 18th Century
(Readings: Stephen Hales, selection from Haemastaticks, and Clara Pinto-Correia, "Frogs with boxer shorts," in History 465 Reader.)
Sept. 21 The Cell Theory and 19th-Century Physiology
(Readings: William Coleman, Biology in the 19th Century, pp. 16-34, in History 465 Reader.)
Sept. 23 French versus German Physiology in the 19th Century
(Readings: Coleman, 143-159, in History 465 Reader; and Claude Bernard, pp. 59-86, from Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, in History 465 Reader).
Sept. 28 First Hour Examination
Part II: EVOLUTION AND HEREDITY IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Sept. 30 Lamarck and the Problem of Evolution
(Readings: J.-B. Lamarck, Chapters 3 and 7 of Zoological Philosophy, in History 465 Reader.)
Oct. 5 Paley, Malthus, and Lyell: the Background to the
Darwinian Revolution
(Readings: Appleman, Darwin, pp. 39-44, 49-52.)
Oct. 7 Naturalists' voyages up through Darwin and the Beagle
(Readings: Wallace in Appleman, pp. 61-64; and Darwin in Appleman, pp. 67-81.)
Oct 12 The Origin of Species
(Readings: Darwin in Appleman, Darwin, pp. 82-174)
Oct. 12 Term paper proposals due
Oct. 14 The Scientific and Social Response to the Origin
(Readings: Appleman, 257-288, Jenkin in History 465 Reader.)
Oct. 19 Darwin and Society
(Readings: Hofstadter, Carnegie, and Kropotkin in Appleman, pp. 389-402 )
Oct. 24 Heredity in the 19th Century
((Reading: Darwin, "Provisional hypothesis of pangenesis," vol. 2, ch. 27 of Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, at http://charles-darwin.classic-literature.co.uk/
variation-of-animals-and-plants-under-domestication-v2/
-- read pages 212-240; Galton, "experiments in pangenesis", at http:www.mugu.com/galton/index.html [at this website you will find a facsimile of Galton's paper in the section "Galton as geneticist"]..)
Oct. 26 Race and Gender in 19th-century biology
Readings: Richards in Appleman, 434-444; W. K. Brooks, "The condition of women from a zoological point of view," in History 465 Reader)
Oct. 28 Second Hour Examination
Part III: BIOLOGY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
Nov. 2 Making sense of Mendel
(Readings: Allen, Life Science in the 20th Century, pp. 41-50, in History 465 Reader.)
Nov. 4 The Eugenics Movement
(Readings: Francis Galton, "Hereditary Talent and Character," http://www.mugu.com/galton/index.html; [at this website you will find a link to this piece in the section "Galton as psychologist"] and Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, pp. 176-263).
Nov. 9 Chromosomes and Classical Genetics
(Readings: Allen, Life Science in the 20th Century, pp. 50-72. in History 465 Reader).
Nov. 11 The Lysenko Affair
(Readings: T. D. Lysenko, from The Situation in the Biological Sciences, in History 465 Reader).
Nov. 16 The Double Helix and the Secret of Life
(Readings: Gunther Stent (ed.), The Double Helix, pp. ix-158, 237-241).
Nov 18 The Biology of Behavior: Ethology and Sociobiology
(Readings: Niko Tinbergen, "Watching and Wondering"; in History 465 Reader; and "Nature and Nurture" in Appleman, Darwin, 409-425)
Thanksgiving Vacation (November 20 - November 28)
Nov 30 The Complex Politics of Recombinant DNA
(Readings: James Watson, "In Defense of DNA," and E. Mendelsohn, "Frankenstein at Harvard," in History 465 Reader.)
Dec. 2 The Human Genome Project
(Readings: James Watson, "The Human Genome Project: Past, Present, and Future" (1990); Robert Wright, "Achilles' Helix" (1990); and Elizabeth Pennisi, "Finally the book of life and the instructions for navigating it" (2000), in History 465 Reader; and David Baltimore, "Our Genome Unveiled," at http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v409/n6822/
full/409814a0_fs.html)
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Dec. 7 Conclusion: Biology and the Brave New World
(Readings: Aldous Huxley, chapters 1-2 from Brave New World, in History 465 Reader; and King and Stabinsky, "Patents on cells, genes, and organisms undermine the exchange of ideas in the scientific world," at http://www.gene-watch.org/programs/patents/undermine.html.)
Dec. 9 Third Hour Examination
Dec. 17 Term Papers due
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University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Website: E. Barbara Meyer - Educational Technology Center - Life Sciences
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