Allelopathy

1. Introduction

2. Definitions

3. Anecdotal evidence

4. Release of compounds from plants

5. Toxicity of plant-derived compounds

a)  To plants

b)  To microorganisms

6.  Some major studies of allelopathic interference

a)  Encelia farinosa

b)  Guayule ­ Parthenium argentatum

c)  Artemisia californica

d)  Chamise ­ Adenostoma fasciculata

e)  Evaluation of these studies

7.  Experimental design to determine the relative importance of types of interference

8.  Mechanisms by which allelopathic interactions work


REFERENCES

-------  1971.  National Academy of Sciences, Biochemical Interactions among Plants, Washington, D.C.

Agrios, G. N.  1969.  Plant Pathology, Academic Press, New York, 629 pp.

Anderson, R. C., Katz, A. J. and Anderson, M. R.  1978.  Allelopathy as a factor in the success of Helianthus mollis Lam., J. Chem. Ecol.  4:  9-16.

Bais, H. P., T. S. Walker, A. J. Kennan, F. R. Stermitz, and J. M. Vivanco.  2003.  Structure-dependent phytotoxicity of catechins and other flavonoids:  Flavonoid conversions by cell-free protein extracts of Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) roots.  J. Agric. Food Chem.  51:  897-901.

Bais, H. P., R. Vepachedu, S. Gilroy, R. M. Callaway, and J. M. Vivanco.  2003.  Allelopathy and exotic plant invasion:  From molecules and genes to species interactions.  Science.  301.  1377-1380.

Barnes, J. P. and Putnam, A. R.  1983.  Rye residues contribute weed suppression in no-tillage cropping systems, J. Chem. Ecol.  9:  1045-1057.

Barnes, J. P. and Putnam, A. R.  1986.  Evidence for allelopathy by residues and aqueous extracts of rye (Secale cereale), Weed Science 34:  384-390.

Bartholomew, B.  1970.  Bare zone between the California shrub and grassland community, Science 170 1210-1212.

Bartholomew, B.  1971.  Role of animals in suppression of herbs by shrubs, Science 173:  463.

Blum, U.  2004.  Fate of phenolic allelochemicals in soils ­ the role of soil and rhizosphere microorganisms in Allelopathy.  Chemistry and Mode of Action of Allelochemicals (F. A. Macías, J. C. G. Galindo, J. M. G. Molinillo, H. G. Cutler, eds.).  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.  pp.  57-76.

Bode, H. R. (1958) Allelopathy in some Juglandaceae, Planta 51:  440-480.

Bonner, J. and A. W. Galston (1944) Toxic substances from the culture media of guayule which may inhibit growth, Bot. Gaz. 106:  185-198.

Casper, B. B. and R. B. Jackson.  1997.  Plant competition underground.  Annual Review Ecology Systematics 28:  545-570.

Callaway, R. M. and E. T. Aschehoug.  2000.  Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors:  A mechanism for exotic invasion.  Science  290:  521-523.

Callaway, R. M., G. C. Thelen, A. Rodriguez, and W. E. Holben.  2004.  Soil biota and exotic plant invasion.  Nature  427:  731-733.

Czarnota, M. A., R. N. Paul, F. E. Dayan, C. I. Nimbal, and L. A. Weston.  2001.  Mode of action, localization of production, chemical nature, and activity of sorgoleone:  A potent PSII inhibitor in Sorghum spp. root exudates.  Weed Technology.  15:  813-825.

Davis, R. F.  1928  The toxic principle of Juglans nigra as identified with synthetic juglone and its toxic effects on tomato and alfalfa plants, Amer. J. Bot.  15:  620 (Abstract).

Dawson, J. O. and Seymour, P. E.  1983  Effects of juglone concentration on growth in vitro of Frankia Ar13 and Rhizobium japonicumstrain 71, J. Chem. Ecol.  9:  1175-1183.

DeCandolle, M. A. P.  1832.  Physiologie Vegetale, Vol. III, Bechet. Jeune, Lib. Fac. Med. Paris, 1474.

Dekker, J. H., Meggitt, W. F. and Putnam, A. R.  1983.  Experimental Methodologies to Evaluate Allelopathic Plant Interactions, J. Chem. Ecol. 9:  945-981.

del Moral, R. and Muller, C. H.  1970.  The allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Amer. Midl. Nat. 83:  254-282.

de Wit, C.T.  1960.  On Competition, Versl. Landbouwk. Onderz.  66:  1-82.

de Wit, C.T.  1961.  Space relationships within pop J. Amer. Chem. Space relationships within populations of one or more species, Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 15:  314-329.

Einhellig , F. A.  2004.  Mode of allelopathic action of phenolic compounds.  in Allelopathy.  Chemistry and Mode of Action of Allelochemicals.  (F. A. Macías, J. C. G. Galindo, J. M. G. Molinillo, H. G. Cutler, eds.).  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.  pp.  217-238.

Einhellig, R. A. and Eckrich, P. C.  1984.  Interactions of temperature and ferulic acid stress on grain sorghum and soybeans, J. Chem. Ecol.  10:  161-170.

Fitter, A.  2003.  Making allelopathy respectable.  Science 301:  1337-1338.

Friedman, J. and Waller, G. R.  1983a  Caffeine hazards and their prevention in germinating seeds of coffee (Coffea arabica). J. Chem. Ecol.  9:  1099-1106.

Friedman, J. and Waller, G. R.  1983b  Seeds as allelopathic agents.  J. Chem. Ecol.  9:  1107-1118.

Friedman, J., Rushkin, E., and Waller, G. R.  1982.  Highly potent germination inhibitors in aqueous eluate of fruits of bishop's weed (Ammi majus L.) and avoidance of autoinhibition, J. Chem. Ecol. 8 55-65.

Fuerst, E. P. and Putnam, A. R. (1983) Separating the competitive and allelopathic components of interference, J. Chem. Ecol.  9:  937-944.

Gray, R. and Bonner, J.  1948a  An inhibitor of plant growth from the leaves of Encelia farinosa, Amer. J. Bot.  34:  52-57.

Gray, R. and Bonner, J.  1948b  Structure determination and synthesis of a plant growth inhibitor, 3-acetyl-6-methoxybenzaldehyde found in the leaves of Encelia farinosa J. Amer. Chem. Soc.  70:  1249-1253.

Halligan, J. P.,  1976  Toxicity of Artemisia californica to four associated herb species, Amer. Midl. Nat.  95:  406-421.

Halsey, R. W.  2004.  In search of allelopathy:  An eco-historical view of the investigation of chemical inhibition in California coastal sage scrub and chamise chaparral.  J. Torrey Botanical Society.  131:  343-367.

Harborne, J. B.  1982  Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry, 2nd. Ed., Academic Press, London, 1982, 278 pp.

Harper, J. H.  1977.  Population Biology of Plants, Academic Press, New York, 982 pp.

Hirsch, A. M., W. D. Bauer, D. M. Bird, J. Cullimore, B. Tyler, and J. I. Yoder.  2003.  Molecular signals and receptors:  Controlling rhizosphere interactions between plants and other organisms.  Ecology  84:  858-868.

Hoagland, R. E. and R. D. Williams.  2004.  Bioassays ­ Useful tools for the study of allelopathy in Allelopathy.  Chemistry and Mode of Action of Allelochemicals.  (F. A. Macías, J. C. G. Galindo, J. M. G. Molinillo, H. G. Cutler, eds.).  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.  pp.  315-351.

Inderjit, K. M. M. Dakshini, and F. A. Einhellig, eds.  1999.  Allelopathy ­ Organisms, Processes and Applications.  Oxford University Press.  Oxford.

Livingston, B. E.  1905.  Physiological properties of bog water. Bot. Gaz.  39:  348-355.

Lodhi, M. A. K.  1981.  Accelerated soil mineralization, nitrification, and revegetation of abandoned fields due to the removal of crop-soil phytotoxicity, J. Chem. Ecol.  7:  685-694.

Macías, F. A.  2004. Heliannanes ­ a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study.  in Allelopathy.  Chemistry and Mode of Action of Allelochemicals.  (F. A. Macías, J. C. G. Galindo, J. M. G. Molinillo, H. G. Cutler, eds.).  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.  pp.  103-124.

Macías, F. A., J. M. G. Molinillo, R. M. Varela, A. Torres, and J. C. G. Galindo.  1999. Bioactive compounds from the genus Helianthus. in Recent Advances in Allelopathy (F. A. Macías, J. C. G. Galindo, J. M. G. Molinillo, H. G. Cutler, eds.)  Vol. 1.  Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.  pp. 121-148.

Macías, F. A., J. C. G. Galindo, J. M. G. Molinillo, H. G. Cutler, eds.  1999.  Recent Advances in Allelopathy.  Vol. 1.  Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.

Macías, F. A., J. C. G. Galindo, J. M. G. Molinillo, H. G. Cutler, eds.  2004.  Allelopathy.  Chemistry and Mode of Action of Allelochemicals.  CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Mahall, B. E. and R. M. Callaway.  1992.  Root communication among desert shrubs.  Proceedings National Academy Sciences  88:  874-876.

Massey, A. B. (1925) Antagonism of the walnuts (Juglans nigra L.) and J. cinerea L. ) in certain plant associations. Phytopathology  15:  773-784.

McPherson, J. K. and Muller, C. H. (1969) Allelopathic effects of Adenostoma fasciculatum, "chamise", in the California chaparral, Ecological Monographs  39:  177-198.

Molisch, H.,  1937.  Der Einfluss einer Pflanze auf die andere - Allelopathie, Fischer, Jena.

Muller, C. H.  1969.  Allelopathy as a factor in ecological process, Vegetatio 18 348-357.

Muller, C. H.  1970.  Phytotoxins as plant habitat variables. Rec. Advanc. Phytochem. 3 106-121.

Muller, C. H.  1970.  The role of allelopathy in the evolution of vegetation in Biochemical Coevolution (K. L. Chambers, ed.), Oregon State Univ. Press, Corvallis, Ore.

Newman, E. I.  1978.  Allelopathy: Adaption or accident in Aspects of Plant and Animal Coevolution (J. B. Harborne, ed.), Academic Press, London.

Newman, E. I.  1983.  Interactions between plants in Physiological Plant Ecology III (O. L. Lange, P. S. Nobel, C. B. Osmond, and H. Ziegler, eds.), Springer, Berlin.

Putnam, A. R., and Duke, W. B. (1978) Allelopathy in Agroecosystems, Ann. Rev. Plant Pathology  16:  431-451.

Rasmussen, J. A. and Einhellig, F. A.  1977.  Synergistic inhibitory effects of p-coumaric and ferulic acids on germination and growth of grain sorghum, J. Chem. Ecol.  3:  195-205.

Raynal, D. J. and Bazzaz, F. A.  1973.  Establishment of early succesional plant populations on forest and prairie soil, Ecology  54:  1335-1341.

Rice, E. L.  1974  Allelopathy, Academic Press, New York, 353 pp.

Rice, E. L.  1977.   Some roles of allelopathic compounds in plant communities, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 5 201-206.

Rice, E. L.  1979.  Allelopathy - an update, Botanical Review 45 15-109.

Rice, E. L.  1984  Allelopathy, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, Orlando

Rice, E. L. and Pancholy, S. K. (1974) Inhibition of nitrification by climax ecosystems. III. Inhibitors other than tannins, Amer. J. Bot.  61:  1095-1103.

Rietveld, W. J. (1983) Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species, J. Chem. Ecol.  9:  295-308.

Rimando, A. M., F. E. Dayan, M. A. Czarnota, L. A. Weston, and S. O. Duke.  1998.  A new photosystem II electron transfer inhibitor from Sorghum bicolor.  J. Nat. Prod.  61:  927-930.

Rizvi, S. J. H. and V. Rizvi, eds.  1992.  Allelopathy:  Basic and applied aspects.  Chapman and Hall, London.

Rose, S. L., Perry, D. A., Pilz, D., and Schoeneberger, M. M. (1983) Allelopathic effects of litter on the growth and colonization of mycorrhizal fungi, J. Chem. Ecol.  9:  1153-1162.

Sakai, H. and Yoneda, K.  1981.  Possible dual roles of an allelopathic compound, cis- dehydromatricaria ester, J. Chem. Ecol.  8:  185-193.

Seigler, D. S.  1996.  Chemistry and mechanisms of allelopathic interactions  Agronomy Journal  88:  876-885.

Stickney, J. S. and Hoy, P. R. (1881) Toxic action of black walnut, Trans. Wis. State Hort. Sci.  11:  166-167.

Tang, C. and Young, C.  1982.  Collection and identification of allelopathic compounds from the undisturbed root system of Bigolta limpograss (Hemarthria altissima), Plant Physiol. 69 155-160.

Trenbath, B. R.  1974.  Biomass productivity of mixtures, Adv. Agron.  26:  177-210.

Tukey, H. B. Jr.  1966.  Leaching of metabolites from above ground plant parts and its implications. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club  93:  385-401.

Tukey, H. B. Jr.  1970.  The leaching of substances from plants, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol.  21:  305-324.

Vivanco, J. M., H. P. Bais, F. R. Stermitz, G. C. Thelen, and R. M. Callaway.  2004.  Biogeographical variation in community response to root allelochemistry:  Novel weapons and exotic invasion.  Ecology Letters.  7:  285-292.

Walker, T. S., H. P. Bais, E. Grotewald, and J. M. Vivanco.  2003.  Root exudation and rhizosphere biology.  Plant Physiology  132:  44-51.

Went, F. W.  1942.  The dependence of certain annual plants on shrubs in southern California deserts. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club  69:  100-114.

Went, F. W.  1970  Plants and the chemical environment in Chemical Ecology, E. Sondheimer and J. B. Simeone, eds., Academic Press, New York.

Whitehead, D. C., Dibb, H., and Hartley, R. D.  1982.  Phenolic compounds in soil as influenced by the growth of different plant species, J. Appl. Ecol. 19 579-588.

Whittaker, R. H.  1970.  The biochemical ecology of higher plants in (E. Sondheimer and J. B. Simeone, eds.), pp. 43-70, Chemical Ecology, Academic Press, New York.

Whittaker, R. H. and Feeny, P. P.  1971.  Allelochemics:  Chemical interactions between species, Science 171 757-770.

Williams, R. D. and Hoagland, R. E.  1982.  The effects of naturally occurring phenolic compounds on seed germination. Weed Science 30 206-212.

Wink, M.  1983.  Inhibition of seed germination by quinolizidine alkaloids, Planta 158:  365-368.

 

Updated October 2006