Final Exam - 1998 Entomology 105 Name____________________________
Final exam
May 12, 1998
All questions are worth one point unless otherwise indicated.

1. Biparental sexual reproduction involves the production of sex cells called __________, each of which contains half of the genetic complement of an individual.

2. In Lepidoptera, individuals with XY chromosomes are _________.

3. In which of the following groups is sperm transfer indirect?
a. bees
b. aphids
c. spiders
d. stoneflies

4. Provide an example of a hermaphroditic insect: __________________.

5. In which of the following groups is haplodiploidy common?
a. Homoptera
b. Hymenoptera
c. Neuroptera
d. all of the above

6. An intraspecific chemical signal is a _______________.

7. From what insect was bombykol isolated?

8. Classify the following pesticides as inorganics, organics, or botanicals: (3 points)
a. Paris Green
b. dieldrin
c. pyrethrum

9. Which of the following is an organophosphate insecticide?
a. gamma-lindane
b. parathion
c. Mirex
d. heptachlor

10. What is biomagnification?

11. What was the title of the book written by Rachel Carson in 1962?

12. When were the insecticidal properties of DDT first discovered?
a. 1886
b. 1908
c. 1939
d. 1959

13. What is a secondary pest?

14. Describe two ways pheromones can be used in insect pest management programs: (2 points)

15. Describe two aspects of the life history of red imported fire ants that have allowed them to expand their range so successfully: (2 points)

16. Where is the ancestral (native) home of the red imported fire ant?

17. What is the scientific name of the red imported fire ant?
a. Solenopsis richteri
b. Solenopsis invicta
c. Formica fusca
d. Iridomyrmex humilis

18. Name two states with fire ant problems today: (2 points)

20. Who was the Brazilian bee scientist responsible for importing Apis mellifera scutellata into Brazil?

21. When were African bees first introduced into the Western hemisphere?
a. 1937
b. 1947
c. 1957
d. 1967

22. "Killer bees" owe their name to the fact that
a. their venom is substantially more toxic than the venom of other bee races.
b. unlike most other bees they are predators of other insects
c. they are more aggressive toward humans than other bee races.
c. governments in other countries in South America wanted to give the Brazilian honey industry a bad name

23. True or false: Apis mellifera, the western honey bee, is native to the Western hemisphere.

24.What is one way African bees differ from European bees that make them desirable from the perspective of beekeepers?

25. What is one way, other than aggressiveness, that African bees differ from European bees that make them undesirable from the perspective of beekeepers?

26. In what year was the Morrill Land Grant Act passed?
a. 1862
b. 1867
c. 1887
d. 1924

27. What was the name of the professor who delivered the first lectures on entomological subjects at UIUC?

28. Who was the first state entomologist of Illinois?
a. Charles Valentine Riley
b. Benjamin Walsh
c. John Henry Comstock
d. William Dandridge Peck

29. What landmark text was written by Thomas Say in 1824-1828?
a. "A Catalogue of Insects of Pennsylvania"
b. "The Insect Menace"
c. "American Entomology"
d. "Report on Insects Injurious to Vegetation"

30. Which of the following achievements was NOT the work of Charles Valentine Riley?
a. wrote the first textbook for college entomology courses
b. demonstrated the feasibility of biological control for pest management
c. introduced inorganic insecticides for pest control
d. founded the American Association of Economic Entomologists

31. Which of the following insects is associated with a totemic system in Australia?
a. mopane worm
b. corn beetle
c. sacred scarab
d. witchety grub

32. Who was the Greek slave who authored the fable, "The Ant and the Grasshopper"?

33. Name two arthropods that were popular heraldic symbols in Tokugawa Japan: (2 points)

34. Provide an example of the use of insects in advertising and explain the product association.

35. What insect might you expect to find on the Beebe family coat of arms?

36. Describe one attribute of insect biology that might explain why insects feature prominently in so many creation myths worldwide.

37.True or false: The early Christians held the sacred scarab in the same high regard as did the ancient Egyptians.

38. Name two professional or collegiate sports teams with hymenopteran mascots/symbols: (2 points)

39. True or false: The oldest artistic depictions of insects are Egyptian hieroglyphics depicting scarab beetles.

40.True or false: Insects and other arthropods are relatively uncommon in tattoo art.

41. True or false: Cryptic insects appear in illuminated manuscripts more frequently than do aposematic insects.

42. In Asia and South America, what insects body parts are used to create works of art?

43. The artist responsible for a series of images published in a work called "Papillons" was
a. Salvador Dali
b. Master of Frankfurt
c. E. A. Seguy
d. Vincent van Gogh

44. The name of the 18th century Dutch woman renowned for her detailed drawings and engravings of insects from Surinam and other exotic localities was ________ __________ ___________.

45. The presence of cockroaches in an apartment might constitute a violation of what?
a. res ipsa loquitur
b. ferae naturae
c. caveat emptor
d. implied warranty of habitability

46. Provide one example of an entomological error made in a court case.

47. What three federal agencies regulate pesticides? (3 points)

48. What are two reasons beekeepers might be sued by neighbors? (2 points)

49. What are two reasons beekeepers might sue their neighbors? (2 points)

50. Folksongs often commemorate actual events or people. Describe the entomological event that inspired the folk song, "Ballad of the Boll Weevil."

51. What is the name of the classical piece by Josquin dez Prez, probably the oldest known reference to insects in music?

52. Why are references to stoneflies, dobsonflies, and bark lice infrequent in songs, stories, and poems?

53. True or false: Insects are rarely featured in children's songs and rhymes.

54. A tremolo (rapid succession of notes) is often used in music to simulate what sound?

55. Describe two conventions typically found in insect cartoons: (2 points)

56. Describe the entomological accomplishment of each of the following filmmakers: (3 points)
Segundo de Chomon

Wladislaw Starewicz

Bert I. Gordon

57. True or false: Insects are protected by the same humane treatment laws on a movie set as are other performing animals.

58. What was distinctive about the short film, "Andre and Wally-Bee"?
a. first line drawing cartoon featuring an insect
b. first puppet animation of an insect
c. first animated film in color to feature an insect
d. first computer generated animated film with a plot involving an insect

59. What age group is most prone to delusory parasitosis?
a. 2 to 12 years
b. 16 to 24
c. 25 to 50
d. over 50

60. In vivo therapy, used to treat entomophobia, consists of
a. placement of subject in catastrophic situation
b. confrontation with feared object in safe conditions
c. observing others handle the feared object
d. relaxation via mental imaging.

61. Name one type of insect that appears in paintings by Salvador Dali:________________.

62. Which characteristic is not a reliable way to distinguish a real insect infestation from delusory parasitosis?
a. bugs "jump"
b. patient scratches and complains of itching sensation
c. bugs infest odd household items such as toothpaste tubes
d. bugs change color over the course of development

63. Under what conditions might a phobic response to insects be considered adaptive?

64. What computer-based approach is now being used to treat entomophobia and other phobias?

65. The collector/naturalist who amassed the largest individual natural history collection in history was:
a. H. W. Bates
b. Walter Rothschild
c. Alfred Russell Wallace
d. A. S. Meek

66. What is the global value of insect deadstock annually?
a. $2 million
b. $20 million
c. $200 million
d. $2 billion

67. Name two major markets for mass-reared insects: (2 points)

68. Provide an example that proves the following statement false:
Butterfly zoos and voliaries are restricted to places with warm mild climates.

69. True or false: Fleas aren't really trained for flea circuses; their "performance" consists solely of their frantic efforts to escape.

70. Ninety billion dollars is the amount of damage
a. caused by insects worldwide every year
b. caused by insects and other introduced organisms in the U.S. every year
c. caused by insects that are carriers of human disease every year
d. caused by crop pests in the U.S. every year.

71. What percentage of U.S. insects are thought to be introduced from elsewhere?

72. The society dedicated to promoting the preservation of endangered invertebrates, named in honor of an extinct butterfly, is the __________ Society.

73. What is the state insect of Illinois?

74. The wheat pest thought to have been introduced into the U.S. during the Revolutionary War by mercenary European soldiers is called the _____________ fly.
a. imported European
b. German
c. Hessian
d. armyworm

75. What major pollutant can accumulate in roadside plants and affect the suitability of foliage for insects?
a. nitrogen oxides
b. carbon monoxide
c. sodium bicarbonate
d. manganese

76. Sperm cells in insects are expelled from the body through the
a. aedeagus
b. adeagus
c. aedaegus
d. aediagus

77. Is the use of long-distance sex pheromones as attractants an example of a prezygotic or postzygotic reproductive isolating mechanism?

78. An example of a species that engages in traumatic insemination is
a. honey bee
b. praying mantis
c. hangingfly
d. bed bug

79. "Theater of Insects" was a classic 17th century work written by
a. Ulysses Aldrovandi
b. Jan Swammerdam
c. Friedrich Melsheimer
d. Thomas Mouffet

80. Approximately how many years had hydrocyanic acid been in use before resistance was reported?
a. 2 years
b. 12 years
c. 22 years
d. 42 years

81. What is an IGR?

82. How can you recognize an African bee on sight?
a. the African bees are larger than European bees
b. the African bees are darker in color than European bees
c. both a and b
d. there's no way to recognize an African bee on sight

83. The Greek word psyche means "soul" but it also has an entomological meaning; that meaning is
a. moth
b. butterfly
c. bee
d. ant

84. Arthropods that figured prominently in some Renaissance emblems included
a. spider and bee
b. spider and fly
c. dung beetle and maggot
d. butterfly and bee

85. Why do many states require apiaries to be inspected regularly?

86. What is FIFRA?

87. What does a "blue screen" have to do with giant insect movies?

88. What is IPM?

89. The phylum to which locusts belong is
a. Animalia
b. Arthropoda
c. Insecta
d. Orthoptera

90. In the scientific name Xenopsylla cheopis, (3 points)
a. what taxonomic unit is designated by Xenopsylla?
b. what taxonomic unit is designated by cheopis?
c. what's the common name of this insect?

91. Which of the following is the name of a family of insects?
a. Apidae
b. Apiaceae
c. Anisoptera
d. Apis

92. A single unit of a compound eye is a(n):
a. ocellus
b. ommatidium
c. olfactory neuron
d. lens

93. Which of the following is exclusively a male activity?
a. cricket chirping
b. firefly flashing
c. long-distance pheromone production

94. When cockroaches in an apartment no longer run and hide when the lights are turned out, they display a form of learning called
a. classical conditioning
b. latent learning
c. habituation
d. insight learning

95. Which of the following is NOT a defining aspect of eusociality?
a. reproductive division of labor
b. cooperative brood care
c. ability to sting
d. overlap of generations

96. In honey bee colonies, division of labor among workers is based on differences in worker
a. size
b. age
c. intelligence
d. hairiness

97. True or false: The single most important economic benefit derived from honey bees is honey production.

98. Describe two biochemical alterations honey bees make to nectar to turn it into honey (2 points):

99. In plants, pollen is produced in structures called ___________. Insect pollinators collect pollen and deliver it to the __________, the receptive surface of the stigma. (2 points)

100. Name two orders of insects containing species involved in pollinating plants: (2 points)

101. Insect cuticle is made up of two major components, one of which is a carbohydrate polymer called ________ .

102. Pick the pair of terms below to complete this sentence:
Oxygen enters the body of an insect through openings called _________ and moves through the body in a system of tubes called ____________.
a. nostrils, veins
b. tracheae, spiracles
c. spiracles, tracheae
d. pores, sensilla

103. Which type of development is characterized by a pupal stage?
a. hemimetabolous
b. holometabolous
c. both hemimetabolous and holometabolous

104. Which of the following statements is always true?
a. all insects have at least one pair of wings at adulthood
b. all insects have six legs at all stages of development
c. all insects reproduce sexually
d. all insects molt over the course of development

105. How many pairs of antennae are possessed by (3 points):
a. insects?
b. crustaceans?
c. spiders?

106. Two orders in which eusocial species are found include (2 points):

107. Two orders which are exclusively phytophagous are (2 points)

108. True or false: Despite their small size, insect herbivores can have a major impact on nutrient cycling and energy flow in ecosystems.

109. How has artificial selection generally altered the biology of crop plants?
a. led to loss of toxins
b. led to loss of dispersal mechanisms
c. led to increase in proportion of edible tissue
d. all of the above

110. Carrying capacity is (choose one);
a. the number of individuals that a particular habitat can sustain given its resources
b. the number of viable eggs or embryos a particular female can carry

111. Which of the following mortality factor most likely works in a density-dependent fashion?
a. predation
b. microbial infection
c. competition for food
d. all of the above
112. What environmental cues are known to promote the appearance of gregarious locusts? (2 points):

113. The scientific name of the migratory locust is
a. Danaus plexippus
b. Melanoplus spretus
c. Schistocerca gregaria
d. Magicicada septemdecim

114. What does Bombyx mori eat?

115. What economically important product does Bombyx mori make?

116. Match the scale insect with its economically important product (3 points):
a. Trabutina mannipara
b. Dactylopius coccus
c. Laccifer lacca

1. cochineal
2. shellac
3. food

117. The vast majority of homopterans are economically harmful. How do they cause harm?
a. they suck plant sap and spread diseases among plants
b. they suck blood and spread diseases among vertebrates
c. they sting
d. all of the above

118. Although species in a number of orders can form galls on plants, the majority of gallformers are found in only two families, the Cecidomyiidae in the order _____________ and the Cynipidae in the order ______________. (2 points).

119. Classify the following gallmakers as useful or destructive and then explain why (2 points):
a. Aleppo gall

b. phylloxera

120. Which of the following is NOT an adaptation possessed by most stored product insects?
a. small size
b. tolerance of dry conditions
c. use of long-distance pheromones in mating
d. all of the above are adaptations possessed by stored product insects

121. The Mediterranean flour moth Anagasta kuehniella infests flour, meal, and waste grain in storage. Would you classify this species as a primary or secondary pest of grain?

122. Keratin is the major protein in
a. insect cuticle
b. fur and feathers
c. caterpillar silk
d. plant tissue

123. Two orders in which carnivory is always present are:
a. Coleoptera and Lepidoptera
b. Odonata and Neuroptera
c. Hymenoptera and Diptera
d. Trichoptera and Plecoptera

124. Two orders in which parasitoids can be found are:
a. Coleoptera and Lepidoptera
b. Odonata and Neuroptera
c. Hymenoptera and Diptera
d. Trichoptera and Plecoptera

125. What is the historical significance of the vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis?
a. it was accidentally introduced and now causes major damage to dozens of crop species
b. it was the first insect introduced as part of a successful biological control program
c. it was the first North American insect illustrated in Europe
d. it was the first insect to develop resistance to a synthetic organic insecticide

126. Certain species of primate produce what enzyme, which allows them to digest insect exoskeletons?
a. chitinase
b. keratinase
c. collagenase
d. luciferase

127. If you have allergies to shellfish or dust, why shouldn't you eat insects?

128. Mopane worms are routinely consumed in
a. Mexico
b. Japan
c. South Africa
d. Thailand

129. True or false: In a Batesian mimicry system, both the model and the mimic are toxic.

130. Which of the following colors is NOT usually considered aposematic?
a. black
b. yellow
c. red
d. all of these colors are considered aposematic

131. Describe two ways insects can be used to treat injuries or disease without swallowing them (2 points):

132. Cantharidin is
a. the active principle in ant venom
b. the toxic quinone produced by bombardier beetles
c. the active principle in Spanishfly
d. the active principle in extracts of arrow-poison flea beetles

133. What does PCR stand for?

134. The process by which those individuals with heritable traits conferring survival produce more offspring than do individuals lacking such traits is called ___________ _____________.

135. What is a gene?

136. Two orders in which all immature stages are aquatic are:
a. Coleoptera and Lepidoptera
b. Odonata and Neuroptera
c. Hymenoptera and Diptera
d. Trichoptera and Plecoptera

137. On which of the following are you likely to find a plastron?
a. rat-tailed maggot
b. aquatic beetle egg
c. immature dragonfly
d. mosquito larva

138. The terms spinner, drake, dun, and humpback all refer to species in what order?
a. Coleoptera
b. Plecoptera
c. Ephemeroptera
d. Diptera

139. Which fly-fishing concept relates to prey-switching behavior in fish?
a. catch and release
b. gentleman's hatch
c. Gestalt is everything
d. match the hatch

140. An order of insects with species that are ectoparasitic as adults and freeliving as larvae is:
a. Phthiraptera
b. Siphonaptera
c. Hemiptera
d. Coleoptera

141.In which of the following orders are mycetomes most often found?
a. Phthiraptera
b. Siphonaptera
c. Hemiptera
d. Coleoptera

142. To what family do mosquitoes belong?
a. Cerambycidae
b. Cynipidae
c. Ceratopogonidae
d. Culicidae

143. Species in the genus ___________ are principal vectors of yellow fever.

144. Species in the genus ___________ are principal vectors of malaria.

145. For the following organisms, classify as to whether they are bacteria, viruses, or protozoans:(2points)
a. Plasmodium
b. Yersinia pestis

146. For the following organisms, identify the disease they cause (3 points):
a. Rickettsia prowazecki
b. Plasmodium falciparum
c. Yersinia pestis

147.True or false: Yersinia pestis requires an insect vector to infect humans.

148. The principal vector of typhus is
a. Xenopsylla cheopis
b. Pediculus humanus
c. Aedes aegypti
d. Cimex lectularius

149. Approximately how many cases of malaria occur worldwide every year?
a. 200,000
b. 2,000,000
c. 20,000,000
d. 200,000,000

150. Which of the following orders contain many coprophagous species?
a. Coleoptera and Diptera
b. Odonata and Neuroptera
c. Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera
d. Trichoptera and Plecoptera

151. Due to its dungfeeding habits, what insect has been implicated as a vector of typhoid fever, dysentery, and cholera?

152. Which of the following insects is necrophagous?
a. sexton beetle
b. clothes moth
c. blow fly
d. all of the above

153. True or false: The order in which insects colonize a corpse is so predictable that the identity of insect species in a corpse can reliably be used to estimate post-mortem interval.

154. Bombykol is a(n);
a. aggregation pheromone
b. sex pheromone
c. aphrodisiac pheromone
d. alarm pheromone

156. What is biomagnification?

157. True or false: Fire ants are regarded as pests because they cause extensive crop damage.

158. What is a varroa mite?

159. Where was the first meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomologists held in 1889?

160.Explain one theory for the origin of totemism.

161. Other than for their purely aesthetic value, for what reasons do insects appeal to artists?

162. In what ways other than by stinging or biting a driver have insects caused motor vehicle accidents that resulted in liability for injury or damage?

163. Provide an example of a song in which insect images are representative of the insignificance of humans:

164. "Them," a film about giant ants created by atomic testing in the desert, was released in
a. 1944
b. 1954
c. 1964
d. 1974

165. What course of action would you take if, as a pest control operator, you were asked to take care of a nonexistent insect infestation?

166. How can carbon dioxide be used to manipulate insect behavior on a movie set?

167. True or false: At the present time, the only insects that are currently on Federal endangered species lists are butterflies and moths, despite the fact that species in many other orders face extinction.

168. The correct way to write the name of the order to which scorpionflies belong is:
a. mecoptera
b. Mecoptera
c. mecoptera
d. Mecoptera

169. What is one fact about insects you learned this semester that you're likely to remember long after you graduate from college?

170. What was your favorite lecture this semester?