Final Exam --1997 Name __________________
Entomology 105
Final exam
May 15, 1997

1. Two gametes fuse to form a(n)
a. ovum
b. zygote
c. aedeagus
d. follicle

2. Silverfish mate via
a. external fertilization
b. indirect sperm transfer
c. direct sperm transfer

3. In which order is parthenogenetic reproduction NOT known to occur?
a. Hymenoptera
b. Thysanoptera
c. Odonata
d. Homoptera

4. Which of the following is a post-zygotic reproductive isolating mechanism?
a. hybrid sterility
b. cricket singing
c. sex pheromone production
d. courtship ritual

5. An intraspecific chemical signal is called a(n)
a. allomone
b. apneumone
c. kairomone
d. pheromone

6. From what insect was bombykol isolated?
a. Japanese beetle
b. Japanese silkworm
c. Confused flour beetle
d. German cockroach

7. Which of the following pesticides is a botanical insecticide?
a. Paris Green
b. lead arsenate
c. pyrethrum
d. DDT

8. Which of the following pesticides is a chlorinated hydrocarbon?
a. dieldrin
b. parathion
c. hydrocyanic acid
d. rotenone

9. When was the first documented instance of insecticide resistance?
a. 1886
b. 1908
c. 1939
d. 1959

10. Who was the author of the book, Silent Spring?
a. Charles Valentine Riley
b. Rachel Carson
c. L. O. Howard
d. Townend Glover

11. What is a secondary pest?

12. Describe two ways pheromones can be used in pest control (2 points):

13. What is the ancestral (native) home of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta?
a. Africa
b. Europe
c. South America
d. Asia

14. Describe 2 aspects of the life history of imported fire ants that have allowed them to expand their range so successfully (2 points):

15. One factor likely to limit the spread of fire ants throughout the U.S. is
a. vertebrate predation
b. massive use of insecticide
c. competition with native ant species
d. cold temperatures in northern parts of the country

16. Why is Solenopsis invicta known as a "fire" ant?
a. it is flame-like red in color
b. its stings cause a burning sensation
c. it spreads like a wildfire
d. it can cause fires by stripping insulation off wires and causing short-circuits.

17. How many species are there in the genus Apis?
a. one
b. between 4 and 6
c. between 14 and 16
d. between 40 and 60

18. What is the full scientific name of the African honey bee?
a. Apis mellifera mellifera
b. Apis mellifera scutellata
c. Apis mellifera adansoni
d. Apis mellifera carnica

19. True or false: Apis mellifera, the western honey bee, is native to the Western Hemisphere.

20. True or false: The venom of European bees is substantially less toxic than is the venom of African "killer" bees.

21. African bees differ from European honey bees
a. in their tendency toward smaller size
b. in their tendency to abscond and to rob honey
c. in their tendency to forage over a greater range of conditions
d. all of the above

22. What was prohibited by the Honey Bee Act of 1922?
a. the importation of honey bee adults and larvae into the U.S.
b. the importation of honey bee semen into the U.S.
c. the use of inorganic insecticides in the vicinity of bee yards
d. the practice of beekeeping in urban areas

23. The bottle slide on a guitar has been used to simulate
a. the stridulation of crickets
b. the buzzing of insect wings
c. the trill of a cicada
d. the jumping movement of fleas

24. "Cicada Serenade" is an example of what musical genre?
a. rock
b. folk
c. classical
d. rap

25. "King Bee" is a song that uses
a. minuteness as a symbol for the human condition
b. metamorphosis as a symbol of change
c. insect images as representative of lust or sexual danger
d. insect society as representative of human society.

26. Folksongs often commemorate actual people or events. Which folksong commemorates an actual entomological event?
a. "Ballad of the Boll Weevil"
b. "Bluetail Fly" (= "Jimmy Crack Corn")
c. "Itsy-Bitsy Spider"
d. "Ain't No Bugs on Me"

27. True or false: Insects are rarely featured in children's songs and rhymes because so many children are entomophobic.

28. Mark Catesby was the author of
a. "Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia"
b. "A Catalogue of Insects of Pennsylvania"
c. "Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahaman Islands"
d. "Insects Injurious to Vegetation"

29. Who wrote, "American Entomology," the first entomological publication of national scope?
a. Frederick Valentine Melsheimer
b. John Abbot
c. John Henry Comstock
d. Thomas Say

30. The first State Entomologist of Illinois was
a. Benjamin Walsh
b. Townend Glover
c. Asa Fitch
d. William Dandridge Peck

31. With what university was Stephen A. Forbes associated?
a. Harvard University
b. Cornell University
c. University of Illinois
d. University of Missouri

32. Which act of Congress provided each state with 30,000 acres per Senator and Representative for the construction of agricultural and industrial colleges?
a. the Morrill Act
b. the Hatch Act
c. the Smith-Lever Act
d. the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

33. Which act of Congress created a nationwide system of state agricultural experiment stations?
a. the Morrill Act
b. the Hatch Act
c. the Smith-Lever Act
d. the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

34. What innovation was Charles Valentine Riley NOT responsible for?
a. biological control of insects
b. use of inorganic insecticides
c. establishment of a national entomological society
d. authorship of the first widely used textbook of entomology

35. What is the state insect of Illinois?
a. the honey bee
b. the monarch butterfly
c. the corn earworm
d. the ladybug

36. Alitalia, the Italian airline, used an insect in an advertising campaign to illustrate the fact that it serves many distant cities; which species did it use to make the point?
a. the honey bee
b. the monarch butterfly
c. the European cabbage white butterfly
d. the mayfly

37. The team symbol for Georgia Tech is
a. Yellowjackets
b. Hornets
c. Sting
d. Paper Wasps

38. The Corn Beetle is an important insect symbol in the written texts of
a. ancient Egyptians
b. contemporary Navajos
c. Renaissance emblems
d. Tokugawa Japan

39. Author of the fable "The Grasshopper and the Ant" was
a. Aesop
b. Cassianus Bassus
c. Thomas Mouffet
d. Vladislav Starewicz

40. The etymological base of the word "psychology" comes from psyche, the Greek word for species in the order
a. Coleoptera
b. Lepidoptera
c. Diptera
d. Hymenoptera

41. Which insects are involved in totemic systems in Australia?
a. witchetty caterpillars
b. lerp-manna
c. honey ants
d. all of the above

42. The presence of which of the following insects in an apartment might constitute a violation of an implied warranty of habitability on the part of the landlord?
a. head lice
b. boxelder bugs
c. cluster flies
d. cockroaches

43.According to insurance laws, in what two ways (other than by stinging or biting a driver) have insects caused motor vehicle accidents that resulted in liability for injury or damage (2 points)?

44. Which of the following situations can be considered a public nuisance?
a. private individual who plants hackberry trees that attract hackberry jumping plant lice.
b. private individual who does nothing to control a resident population of crab lice
c. city park district that plants flowers that attract bumblebees and honey bees
d. power company that dams a stream to create standing water in which mosquitoes breed.

45. Provide two examples of an entomological error made by a court (2 points):

46. True or false: Bees are legally considered domesticated animals.

47. The painting "Death's Head Moth" was by
a. the Master of Frankfurt
b. Vincent Van Gogh
c. E. A. Seguy
d. Maria Sybelle Merian

48. The painting, "The Great Masturbator," by Salvador Dali, featured a
a. butterfly
b. grasshopper
c. fly
d. dragonfly

49. Other than for their purely aesthetic value, insects appeal to artists because:
a. they are so much easier to draw than most other animals
b. their small size presents a technical challenge
c. they are economically important and thus can increase the value of a painting
d. their anatomical details are likely to be very familiar to a wide range of people.

50. True or false: Cryptic insects appear more frequently in illuminated manuscripts than aposematic insects.

51. How old are the oldest artistic depictions of insects?
a. 600 years old
b. 6,000 years old
c. 60,000 years old
d. 600,000 years old.

52. Winsor McCay was responsible for
a. the first line drawing cartoon featuring an insect
b. the first puppet animation of an insect
c. directing several "big bug" films of the fifties
d. inventing the animation process after watching fly footage.

53. Bert I. Gordon was responsible for
a. the first line drawing cartoon featuring an insect
b. the first puppet animation of an insect
c. directing several "big bug" films of the fifties
d. inventing the animation process after watching fly footage.

54. Wladislaw Starewicz was responsible for
a. the first line drawing cartoon featuring an insect
b. the first puppet animation of an insect
c. directing several "big bug" films of the fifties
d. inventing the animation process after watching fly footage.

55. Describe two conventions typically found in insect cartoons (2 points):

56. List two behavioral features of Jiminy Cricket that are entomologically correct (2 points):

57. What insect was featured in the first computer-generated animated film with a plot?
a. ant
b. bee
c. grasshopper
d. butterfly

58. Correct the following statement;
"Them," a film about giant ants created by atomic testing in the desert, was Warner Brother Studio's biggest grossing film of 1964.

59. The giant grasshoppers in "Beginning of the End" were created by what process?
a. giant models of grasshoppers
b. traveling matte/blue screen footage of real grasshoppers
c. computer animation
d. hand-drawn animation
60. Bees appear frequently in insect fear films because their behavior can be so easily manipulated. What is one method that can be used to control bees?
a. lights can be used to direct their movements
b. pheromones can be used to direct their movements
c. adult emergence patterns can be used to reduce the likelihood of stinging
d. all of the above

61. True or false: Insects are protected by the same humane treatment laws on a movie set as are other performing animals.

62. What age group is most prone to delusory parasitosis?
a. extremely young children (under the age of 3)
a. children between ages 3 and 12
b. men and women between 22-40.
c. men and women over 50

63. True or false: All individuals who fear insects can be said to be suffering from entomophobia.

64. Which of the following is typical of a physiological reaction in a phobic response to insects?
a. feeling of doom, fear of loss of control
b. rapid heartbeat, cold sweat, shaking
c. running away
d. inability to move

65. Freudian theories of the origins of entomophobia deal with
a. traumatic events experienced by a pregnant mother, transferred to the unborn child
b. unresolved mental conflicts, primarily about sex
c. genetic predisposition to avoid dangerous situations
d. conditioned response to aversive stimuli

66. Systematic desensitization for entomophobia involves:
a. placement of subject in catastrophic situaiton
b. confrontation with feared object
c. observing others handle the feared object
d. relaxation via mental imaging

67. Flooding therapy for entomophobia involves:
a. placement of subject in catastrophic situaiton
b. confrontation with feared object
c. observing others handle the feared object
d. relaxation via mental imaging

68. Which is not a characteristic that can be used to distinguish a real infestation from delusory parasitosis?
a. "bugs" change color
b. "bugs" infest household items such as toothpaste tubes
c. "bugs" disappear after treatment with insecticide

69. Sir Walter Rothschild is known entomologically principally for:
a. discovering the largest butterfly in the world
b. identifying zoogeographic realms
c. amassing the largest individual natural history collection in history
d. describing mimicry among Amazonian butterflies

70. H. W. Bates is known entomologically principally for:
a. discovering the largest butterfly in the world
b. identifying zoogeographic realms
c. amassing the largest individual natural history collection in history
d. describing mimicry among Amazonian butterflies

71. Top prices paid for insect specimens today by collectors are in the range of:
a. $100-$200
b. $1,000-$2,000
c. $10,000-$20,000
d. $100,000 +

72. Which is NOT a major market for mass-reared insects in the U. S.?
a. bait shops
b. pet shops
c. art supply houses
d. biological supply houses

73. The most popular insect order among collectors is:
a. Lepidoptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Hymemoptera
d. Odonata

74. True or false: Butterfly zoos and voliaries are restricted to places with warm, mild climates.

75. The artist associated with "roachart" is
a. Garneth Puett
b. Kazuo Kadonaga
c. Susan Hubbell
d. Richard Boscarino

76. What percentage of U. S. insects are thought to have been introduced from elsewhere?
a. 2%
b. 12%
c. 22%
d. 32%

77. True or false: The number of European insects introduced into the U.S. that have become established residents is far less than the number of American insects introduced into Europe that have become established.

78. The Xerces Society, dedicated to protecting endangered insect species, is named in honor of:
a. a lepidopterist who dedicated his life to preserving endangered species
b. an endangered species of butterfly
d. an extinct species of beetle

79. True or false: One sure sign that an insect is not native is the fact that it feeds largely on non-native plants.

80. True or false:Today, introductions of insects into this country are always accidental.

81. True or false: Plant and insect conservationists are united in their efforts to conserve habitat for endangered species.

82. Which of the following species is native to North America?
a. American cockroach
b. Colorado potato beetle
c. Hessian fly
d. Japanese beetle.

82. According to sexual selection theory, males exhibit _______________ and females exhibit ____________ _____________ (2 points).

83. Agregation pheromones
a. allow females to evaluate prospective mates
b. attract males to prospective mates
c. attract males and females to common locations
d. alert conspecifics to the presence of food.

84. What does "IGR" stand for?

85. What does "IPM" stand for?

86. What does "FIFRA" stand for?

87. What does "EPA" stand for?

88. What does "ESA" stand for?

89. What does "BT" stand for?

90. List two advantages of parthenogenesis:

91. What is the proper way to write the name of the body louse?
a. Pediculus Humanus Humanus
b. pediculus humanus humanus
c. Pediculus humanus humanus
d. pediculus Humanus Humanus

92. To what genus does the body louse belong?
a. Pediculus
b. humanus
c. humanus humanus
d. Pediculidae

93. Approximately how many insects have scientific names?
a. 80,000
b. 800,000
c. 8,000,000
d. 8,000

94. Which of the following is the vernacular name of the species on which most commercial honey production in this country depends?
a. Apis mellifera
b. the western honey bee
c. the honey bee
d. the bee

95. Why are scientific names italicized or underlined?
a. to set them off from the rest of the text.
b. because they are proper names
c. because they are Latin and thus are in a foreign language
d. because Carolus Linnaeus began the tradition and it has been carried on in his honor.

96. To what phylum do spiders belong?
a. Arachnida
b. Arthropoda
c. Chelicerata
d. Animalia

97. How many pairs of antennae do insects have?
a. none
b. one
c. two
d. from two to four

98. A cephalothorax is characteristic of members of the class
a. Arachnida
b. Crustacea
c. Myriapoda
d. Chilopoda

99. Which group typically has six legs at adulthood?
a. Arachnida
b. Crustacea
c. Chilopoda
d. Insecta

100. Which group of insects cannot fold their wings flat over the body?
a. Ephemeroptera
b. Dictyoptera
c. Plecoptera
d. Diptera

101. In which two orders is eusociality common?
a. Hemiptera and Coleoptera
b. Homoptera and Phasmida
c. Isoptera and Hymenoptera
d. Thysanoptera and Dermaptera

102. Which two orders are entirely phytophagous?
a. Hemiptera and Pscocoptera
b. Homoptera and Phasmida
c. Isoptera and Hymenoptera
d. Diptera and Lepidoptera

103. Which two orders are entirely ectoparasitic on vertebrates as adults?
a. Hemiptera and Coleoptera
b. Homoptera and Phasmida
c. Isoptera and Hymenoptera
d. Siphonaptera and Phthiraptera

104. Which two orders are entirely aquatic in immature stages?
a. Diptera and Neuroptera
b. Odonata and Trichoptera
c. Ephemeroptera and Hemiptera
d. Plecoptera and Collembola

105. Insect cuticle is made up of two major components, a protein called _______ and a carbohydrate called __________.
a. fibroin/ sericin
b. resilin/ cellulose
c. keratin/ cuticulin
d. sclerotin/ chitin

106. Which of the following orders is NOT holometabolous?
a. Hymenoptera
b. Orthoptera
c. Diptera
d. Coleoptera

107. Oxygen moves through the bodies of insects through a system of tubes called
a. gills
b. book lungs
c. tracheae
d. spiracles

108. True or false: Insects have an open circulatory system.

109. True or false: The epidermal cells provide rigidity to the insect exoskeleton.

110. Imaginal discs are found in what kinds of insects?
a. holometabolous
b. hemimetabolous

111. A single unit of a compound eye is called a(n):
a. ocellus
b. ommatidium
c. cornea
d. rhabdom

112. Olfactory sensilla detect:
a. the presence of light
b. the presence of chemicals in solution
c. the presence of sound
d. the presence of airborne chemicals.

113. An example of a secondary transverse orientation is:
a. celestial navigation
b. basking in the sun
c. flying toward a sex pheromone
d. running away from light.

114. Cockroach nonresponsiveness to lights in an apartment is an example of:
a. insight learning
b. classical conditioning
c. habituation
d. latent learning.

115. List one way artificial selection has altered the biology of crop plants:

116. Puddling by butterflies is a solution to what nutritional deficiency in plants?
a. low moisture content
b. low protein content
c. low mineral content
d. high content of toxins

117. True or false: Relative to large mammals, insect herbivores have little impact on nutrient cycling and energy flow in ecosystems.

118. About when were crop plants first domesticated?
a. about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago
b. about 80,000 years ago
c. about 800,000 years ago
d. about 1.6 million years ago

119. True or false: Entomological control techniques have progressed to the point today that outbreaks of locusts are a thing of the past.

120. The form of the migratory locust most likely to be found in a swarm is
a. Schistocerca gregaria var. gregaria
b. Schistocerca gregaria var. solitaria
c. Melanoplus spretus

121. Which of the following mortality factors is likely to act in a density-independent manner?
a. hurricane
b. flood
c. disease
d. sudden drop in temperature

122. Carrying capacity is (choose a or b):
a. the number of viable eggs or embryos that a particular female can carry
b. the number of individuals that a particular habitat can sustain given its resources

123. Which of the following types of gall insects can NOT be considered useful?
a. phylloxera
b. Aleppo gall
c. pamakani gall fly

124. The majority of gallformers are found in only two families, the Cynipidae, a family in the order _______________ , and the Cecidomyiidae, a family in the order ______________ (2 points).

125. True or false: Insects are responsible for all galls that form on plants.

126. To what order does Bombyx mori belong?
a. Orthoptera
b. Lepidoptera
c. Coleoptera
d. Homoptera

127. What nation is the leading producer of the world's silk today?
a. India
b. China
c. Japan
d. Italy

128. List one property of silk that make it such a desirable fiber:

129. In Bombyx mori, silk is the threadlike viscous secretion of
a. abdominal glands
b. wax glands
c. salivary glands
d. cement glands

130. Name a commercial source of silk other than Bombyx mori: __________________
131. In honey bee colonies, division of labor among workers is based on differences in worker
a. size
b. age
c. color
d. relationship to the queen.

132. Where do bees get wax to build their combs?
a. from resinous exudates of trees
b. from glands in their heads
c. from glands in their abdomens
d. from secretions gathered from larvae.

133. What is one behavioral trait that bees show that increases their nectar-collecting efficiency?

134. How do bees carry pollen back to the hive?
a. in their corbicula
b. in their crops
c. on their tongues
d. on their backs

135. What is the single most important economic benefit derived from honey bees?
a. wax products
b. honey
c. pollination
d. royal jelly

136. List one use for honey other than for baking:

137. In plants, pollen is produced in structures called
a. anthers
b. stigmas
c. corollas
d. pistils

138. Petals are important to flowers because
a. they protect the delicate sexual organs of the plant
b. they help plants to photosynthesize
c. they provide a place for storing starch
d. they serve as advertisements to pollinators

139. Plants pollinated by beetles typically have
a. fetid odors and purplish colors
b. bright colors, long thin spurs
c. open flowers, abundant pollen
d. nocturnal anthesis, pale colors

140. The economic value of pollination in the U.S. each year is on the order of
a. 1 million dollars
b. 100 million dollars
c. 1 billion dollars
d. 10 billion dollars

141. List one property of lac that make it a useful material:

142. Write the number corresponding to the geographic area next to the homopteran:
1. Mexico
2. Middle East
3. India
a. Trabutina mannipara _________
b. Laccifer lacca_________
c. Dactylopius coccus_________

143. Of the following, which is a contemporary use for cochineal?
a. insulation
b. jewelry setting
c. food coloring
d. sealant

144. Most stored product pests are descended from
a. species that feed on foliage of flowering plants
b. species that feed on grain caches or dead animals
c. predaceous species
d. aquatic species

145. Which of the following is NOT an adaptation possessed by a number of stored product pests?
a. winglessness
b. large size
c. tolerance of dry conditions
d. tolerance of toxins

146. Which of the following is a primary pest of grain?
a. rice weevil
b. mealworm
c. flour beetle
d. Indianmeal moth

147. Carpet beetles and clothes moths are capable of breaking down the major protein in fur and feathers by virtue of an enzyme they possess called
a. cellulase
b. keratinase
c. luciferase
d. lipase.

148. In which of the following orders are all species carnivorous?
a. Diptera
b. Odonata
c. Hemiptera
d. Plecoptera

149. Which of the following families contain primarily species that attack sedentary prey?
a. Chrysomelidae
b. Cerambycidae
c. Coccinellidae
d. Curculionidae

150. In which of the following orders are parasitoids not known to occur?
a. Diptera
b. Hemiptera
c. Hymenoptera

151. True or false: Contamination of food with insect parts or excrement is against the law.

152. What is the economic significance of Rodolia cardinalis?
a. it is the commercial source of a red pigment
b. it is a biocontrol agent for cottony cushion scale.
c. it is a biocontrol agent for Klamath weed.
d. it causes galls on the roots of grapevines

153. Gusanos de maguey are consumed in
a. Mexico
b. Thailand
c. South Africa
d. Japan

154. Which of the following edible insects belongs to the same order as gusanos de maguey?
a. tsukudani
b. mang dar nah
c. locusts
d. mopane worms

155. True or false: According to the Old Testament, ants are kosher.

156. Which of the following insects depends on predator satiation for defense?
a. walking stick
b. monarch butterfly
c. periodical cicada
d. peppered moth

157. Which of the following is NOT an example of a secondary defense?
a. osmeterial eversion
b. reflect bleeding
c. stinging
d. aposematism

158. True or false: In a Muellerian mimicry system, both the model and mimic are toxic.

159. In their reactor glands, bombardier beetles produce
a. aldehydes
b. isobutyric acid
c. quinones
d. cardiac glycosides.

160. The active component of extracts of Spanishfly is a chemical called
a. cantharadin
b. cantharidin
c. canthiridin
d. cantharidone

161. Allantoin is a chemical produced by
a. suture ants
b. surgical maggots
c. spiders
d. ants

162. What does "PCR" stand for?

163. A segment of DNA on a chromosome coding for a protein or RNA molecule is a(n):
a. mutation
b. genotype
c. phenotype
d. gene

164. The theory of natural selection was conceived by
a. Charles Rothschild
b. Charles Lyell
c. Charles Darwin
d. Charles Valentine Riley

165. Tracheal gills are used for respiration by
a. immature plecopterans
b. aquatic beetle eggs
c. rat-tailed maggots
d. diving beetles

166. True or false: The gas present in greatest concentration in a physical gill is oxygen.

167. What would you not expect to see in the back leg of a waterboatman?
a. long hairs
b. elongate shape
c. round cross-section
d. tarsal claws

168. Dame Juliana Berners was the author of
a. "A Treatyse of Fysshing with an Angle"
b. "The Compleat Angler"
c. "Secrets of Angling"
d. "Fly-Fisher's Entomology"

169. What stage is represented by a "dun"?
a. adult
b. nymph
c. subimago
d. egg

170. What order of insects would be least popular with flytying fishermen?
a. Trichoptera
b. Ephemeroptera
c. Plecoptera
d. Coleoptera

171. Which of the following is a protelean parasite?
a. body louse
b. cat flea
c. horse fly
d. cattle grub

172. True or false: Dermatobia hominis can be found feeding in follicular secretions of human skin.

173. An ectoparasite that is a vessel feeder is
a. a stable fly
b. a deer fly
c. a mosquito
d. a face fly

174. In which ectoparasite would you expect to find mycetomes?
a. face fly
b. mosquito
c. body louse
d. cat flea

175. The principal vector of yellow fever is
a. Aedes aegypti
b. Anopheles punctipennis
c. Xenopsylla cheopis
d. Pediculus humanus

176. Which of the following diseases is NOT known to be vectored by mosquitoes?
a. plague
b. dengue
c. malaria
d. equine encephalitis

177. Yellow fever is a(n)
a. bacterium
b. virus
c. rickettsia
d. protozoan

178. Plasmodium is a
a. bacterium
b. virus
c. rickettsia
d. protozoan

180. Which of the following is the principal reason for the recent resurgence of malaria worldwide?
a. decrease in world supply of quinine
b. decrease in the number of people receiving malaria vaccinations
c. increase in the number of insects capable of serving as vectors
d. increase in the number of vectors developing resistance to insecticides

181. Yersinia pestis is a
a. bacterium
b. virus
c. rickettsia
d. protozoan

182. Where is the inveterate focus of Yersinia pestis?
a. in the proventriculus of a flea
b. in the Middle East/Central Asia
c. in populations of wild monkeys
d. in 14th century Europe

183. What would you never expect to find on a flea?
a. sucking mouthparts
b. backwards-pointing spines
c. wings
d. resilin

184. Infestation by lice is known as
a. canthariasis
b. myiasis
c. pediculosis
d. dermatosis

185. True or false: Lice inject the pathogens that cause typhus into the feeding site along with saliva.

186. What is a nit?
a. a mark on the skin made by louse feeding
b. an immature louse
c. a louse egg
d. a louse dropping

187. In which order would you expect to find coprophagous species?
a. Coleoptera
b. Ephemeroptera
c. Hymenoptera
d. Neuroptera

188. Scarabaeus sacer is a species of dung beetle that
a. lays its eggs in dung on top of the soil
b. buries dung in place and then oviposits in it
c. rolls dung balls away from the site of deposition.

189. Due to its dungfeeding habits, the house fly has been implicated as a vector of
a. yellow fever
b. dysentery
c. epidemic relapsing fever
d. all of the above

190. Members of what dipteran family are among the first to visit a corpse?
a. Coleophoridae
b. Calliphoridae
c. Piophilidae
d. Chrysopidae

191. Which of the following insects is NOT necrophagous?
a. flesh fly
b. face fly
c. clothes moth
d. sexton beetle.