final 96
Entomology 105 Name_____________________
Final Exam
May 3, 1996

1. The first written account of the use of insects in solving a crime dates back to the ___________ century in China.

2. The hard shell-like structure that forms around a metamorphosing fly is called a _____________.

3. What kind of carrion-feeding insect larviposits?
a. black fly
b. clothes moth
c. flesh fly
d. cheese skipper

4. Provide an example of a species that engages in traumatic insemination: __________________.

5. In humans, individuals with XY chromosomes are ____________; in Lepidoptera, individuals with XY chromosomes are ____________.

6. What is a species?

7. Classify the following pesticides as inorganics, synthetic organics, or botanicals:
a. hydrocyanic acid
b. dieldrin
c. pyrethrum
d. DDT

8. Match the date with the event:
1886 Domestic ban on DDT use
1959 First use of hydrocyanic acid as fumigant
1962 Characterization of bombykol
1971 Publication of "Silent Spring"

9. What is a secondary pest?
a. a pest that is of lesser economic importance than other species attacking the same crop
b. a pest that appears late in the growing season
c. a pest that becomes important only after insecticide use kills off its natural enemies
d. a pest that has become resistant to inorganic insecticides and thus must be controlled with synthetic organic insecticides.

10. Describe two aspects of the life history of imported fire ants that have allowed them to expand their range so successfully:

11. When were fire ants first reported in the United States?
a. 1888
b. 1940
c. 1957
d. 1967

12. Why is Solenopsis invicta known as a "fire" ant?

How can this species actually cause fires?

13. What is the full scientific name of the African honey bee accidentally introduced to Brazil by Warwick Kerr?
a. Apis mellifera mellifera
b. Apis mellifera adansoni
c. Apis mellifera ligustica
d. Apis mellifera scutellata

14. True or false: Killer bee venom is substantially more toxic than the venom of Italian bees.

15. The first report of Africanized bees in the U.S. as a result of their own northward movement was in:
a. Texas
b. New Mexico
c. California
d. Florida

16. What is one way African bees differ from most European bees (other than aggressiveness) that makes them undesirable from the perspective of beekeepers?

What is one way African bees differ from most European bees that makes them desirable from the perspective of beekeepers:

17. Describe two contributions of Charles Valentine Riley to the development of entomology in the United States:

18. Two important legislative acts greatly affected the history of entomology in the United States; the _________________________ provided each state with 30,000 acres per Senator and Representative for the construction of agricultural and industrial colleges and the ________________________ created a nationwide system of state agricultural experiment stations.

19. Universities were extremely important in legitimizing the study of entomology in the U.S. With what universities were the following individuals primarily associated?
a. John Henry Comstock
b. Stephen A. Forbes

20. Describe one attribute of insect biology that might explain why insects feature prominently in so many creation myths worldwide:

21. Name two state insects and the states they represent:

22. What insect might you expect to find on the Combe family coat of arms?

23. Provide an example of insect symbols in written texts of:
a. ancient Egyptians
b. Renaissance emblems

24. Give an example of a subjective reaction in a phobic response to insects:

Give an example of a physiological reaction in a phobic response to insects:

Give an example of a motor reaction in a phobic response to insects:

25. Define the following therapies for entomophobia:
a. systematic desensitization
b. in vivo therapy
c. flooding therapy
d. modelling

26. List two characteristics that can be used to distinguish a real infestation from delusory parasitosis:

27. What is FIFRA?

28. How does the doctrine of res ipsa loquitor apply to lawsuits involving insect bites?

29. According to insurance laws, in what ways, other than by stinging or biting a driver, have insects caused motor vehicle accidents that resulted in liability for injury or damage?

30. What are two reasons beekeepers might sue their neighbors?

31. What does it mean that bees are considered ferae naturae?

32. Name two major markets for mass-reared insects:

33. Provide an example that proves the following statement false:
Butterfly zoos and voliaries are restricted to places with warm mild climates.

34. What was Walter Rothschild's principal contribution as a collector/naturalist?

35. Name the artists associated with
a. apisculpture
b. roachart

36. Describe two instrumental methods used to simulate the sounds of insect flight in songs:

37. Folksongs often commemorate actual people or events; name a folksong that commemorates an entomological event.

38. Name a song that incorporates as its theme metamorphosis as a symbol for change or growth.

39. Name a song that incorporates as its theme insect images as representative of lust, desire, or sexual danger.

40. How much damage do introduced insects cause each year in the U.S.?
a. nine million dollars
b. ninety million dollars
c. nine billion dollars
d. ninety billion dollars

41. Provide an example that proves the following statement false:
Plant and insect conservationists are united in their effort to conserve habitat for endangered species.

42. Where do monarch butterflies from Illinois spend their winters?

43. True or false: The number of American insects iintroduced into Europe that have become established is far greater than the number of European insects introduced into the U.S. that have become established.

44. Describe two conventions typically found in insect cartoons:

45. Identify the entomological connections of the following filmmakers:
a. Winsor McCay
b. Bert I. Gordon

46. What insect was featured in the first computer-generated animated film with a plot?

47. Why are ultrasonic mosquito repellers a bad investment?

48. List two reasons why stories in tabloids about 23-pound grasshoppers and beetles the size of Volkswagens are exceedingly unlikely to be true:

49. Research on what organism was recognized with the 1995 Japan Prize for technology?

50. Research on what organism was recognized with the 1995 Nobel Prize in Medicine?

51. What is the proper way to write the scientific name of the German cockroach?
a. Blattella germanica
b. Blattella germanica
c. Blattella Germanica
d. blattella germanica

52. Approximately how many species of insects have scientific names?

53. What are the two body divisions of arachnids:

54.Name an order in which all species are phytophagous:

55. True or false: Insects have a closed circulatory system similar to humans.

56. In holometabolous development, adult tissues are quiescent throughout the immature stages in islands of adult cells called __________________________.

57. True or false: Bees can see ultraviolet light.

58. What kind of signals do olfactory receptors detect?

59. Name an order in which eusocial insects can be found:

60. What is the substance worker honey bees feed to a grub to raise a queen?

61. How do bees turn nectar into honey?

62. What is "bee space"?

63, How do bees carry pollen?

64. List one way in which pollen differs from nectar as a reward to pollinators:

65. The economic value of bee pollination in the U.S. each year is on the order of:
a. one million dollars
b. 100 million dollars
c. ten billion dollars
d. 100 billion dollars

66. Name an order in which insects that feed on plant sap using piercing/sucking mouthparts are found:

67. In what part of the caterpillar alimentary system are digestive and detoxification enzymes secreted?

68. Name a plant disease and the insect that serves as its vector:
Disease _________________ Vector__________________

69. What environmental characteristics are known to promote the appearance of gregarious locusts?

70. True or false: The shorter the generation time, the greater the reproductive potential.

71. To what geographical area is the cochineal scale native?
On what plant does it feed?

72. What characteristic of the sternorrhynchous Homoptera has made many species economically beneficial?

73. Silk is the threadlike viscous secretion of the salivary glands of the caterpillar ___________ _________ (scientific name).

74. What properties are possessed by silk that make it such a desirable fiber?

75. What is a gall?

76. On what plant does phylloxera form galls and why is this insect destructive?

77. Name an order in which gall-forming insects are abundant:

78. Carpet beetles and clothes moths share a biocemical ability that allows them to consume animal fur or hair--they can break down ______________, the major protein in fur, hair, and feathers.

79. How has processing plant products for storage made life easier for stored product insects?

80.Name an order in which all species are carnivorous:

81. Name an order in which parasitoids are abundant:

82. With the orange and black coloration, monarch butterflies can be considered:
a. cryptic
b. aposematic
c. homotypic
d. phlegmatic

83. Name an insect that engages in reflex bleeding for defense:

84. True or false: In a Batesian mimicry complex, the model is toxic and the mimics are palatable.

85. Why is the consumption of social insects so widespread?

86. Certain species of primates produce _____________, an enzyme that allows them to digest insect exoskeletons.

87. Why is Spanishfly an inaccurate name for Lytta vesicatoria?

88. What is maggot therapy?

89. What is the name of the individual who proposed the theory of natural selection in 1859?

90. Define "gene":

91. Name an order in which all immature stages are aquatic:

92. Provide an example of an insect with a respiratory siphon:

93. Spinners, duns, drakes, and humpbacks are all fishing flies depicting species in the order ________________.

94. Who wrote The Compleat Angler in 1653?

95. What aspects of vertebrate blood make it less than ideal as a food for insects?

96. Which of the following is not characteristic of ectoparasitic insects?
a. thick cuticle
b. inconspicuous coloration
c. flattening of body
d. highly developed sensory appendages

97. To what family do mosquitoes belong?

98. Yellow fever is caused by a ________________.

99. Correct this sentence: Species in the genus Anopheles are the principal vectors of yellow fever.

100. What is the principal reason for the recent resurgence of malaria worldwide?

101. Plasmodium, a _______________, is the causative agent of malaria.

102. Species in the order Siphonaptera are known as _______________.

103. The Oriental rat flea is the principal vector of what human disease?

104. Where is the inveterate focus of Yersinia pestis?
a. Western North America
b. Middle East/Central Asia
c. Eastern Europe
d. Pacific Ocean

105. What is a nit?

106. Typhus is caused by a
a. virus
b. rickettsia
c. nematode
d. protozoan

107. True or false: Body lice are important vectors of typhus.

108.Name an order with an abundance of coprophagous species:

109. Due to its dungfeeding habits, house flies have been implicated as vectors of
a. dysentery
b. malaria
c. yellow fever
d. all of the above.

110. Cheese skippers (Piophila casei) occur in corpses (soon after death/long after death).

111. Mosquitoes can be used as a source of ________________, which can be analyzed genetically and compared with that of a suspect to link him or her to the scene of a crime.

112. An intraspecific chemical signal is called a(n) _____________________.

113. In which order does parthenogenesis occur?
a. Hymenoptera
b. Homoptera
c. Thysanoptera
d. All of the above

114. An aggregation pheromone
a. allows females to evaluate prospective mates
b. attracts males to prospective mates
c. attracts males and females to a common location
d. alerts conspecifics to the presence of danger

115. What is intercropping?

116. How can pheromones be used in pest control?

117. True or false: Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring was met with immediate scientific and governmental acclaim.

118. One factor likely to limit the spread of both killer bees and fire ants in the United States is ________________.

119. When did the National Academy of Sciences release its study concluding that eradication of fire ants was not a feasible goal?
a. 1940
b. 1957
c. 1967
d. 1976

120. True or false: Apis mellifera, the Western honey bee, is not native to North America.

121. How are Africanized bees distinguished from European bees?

122. Who wrote "American Entomology," published in 1824-28, probably the first entomological publication in the U.S. of national scope?

123. True or false: Throughout the nineteenth century, entomology was regarded as a lucrative and prestigious field.

124. The Greek word psyche has two meanings. What is its more entomological meaning?

125. Provide an example of the use of insects in advertising and explain the product association.

126. Irrational fear of spiders is known as _______________________.

127. What course of action would you take if, as a pest control operator, you were asked to take care of a nonexistent insect infestation?

128. The presence of which of the following insects in an apartment might constitute a violation of an implied warranty of habitability on the part of the landlord?
a. boxelder bugs
b. cockroaches
c. head lice
d. cluster flies

129. Provide an example of an entomological error made by a court.

130. The most popular order among collectors is the _______________.

131. What is an insect wrangler?

132. One of the oldest known classical pieces about insects, by Josquin des Prez, is called _____________.

133. Why do you suppose references to stoneflies, dobsonflies, and bark lice rarely appear in songs, poems, and stories?

134. The Xerces Society, dedicated to preserving endangered invertebrates, is named in honor of:
a. an endangered species of butterfly
b. an extinct species of butterfly
c. an endangered species of beetle
d. a lepidopterist who dedicated his life to preserving endangered species.

135. Provide an example that proves the following statement false:
All introductions of insects into this country have been accidental and undesirable.

137. True or false: "Them, a film about giant ants created by atomic testing in the desert, was Universal Studio's biggest grossing film of 1954.

138. True or false: Insects are protected by the same humane treatment laws on a movie set as are other performing animals.

139. What do the following acronyms of science-funding government agencies stand for? NIH

140. Name a popular science magazien that often carries stories about insects:

141. What book did Carolus Linnaeus write in 1758?

142. How many pairs of antennae do you find on the heads of
a. insects?
b. arachnids?
c. crustaceans?

143. In what order can you find oothecae?
a. Odonata
b. Isoptera
c. Dictyoptera
d. Thysanoptera

144. Name two orders of insects that are entirely wingless:

145. In what order are immatures called
a. caterpillars?
b. maggots?
Are these orders holometabolous or hemimetabolous?

146. The surface area/volume ratio means that smaller animals have
a. proportionately more surface area for their volume
b. proportionately less surface area for their volume
c. the same surface area for their volume

147. Provide an example of anthropomorphism in entomology.

148. Define "altruism."

149. List two prezygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms
and two post-zygotic reproductive isolating mechanisms

150. Complete the common names of these introduced insects using the list below:

_____________ cabbageworm Hessian
_____________ beetle German
_____________ cockroach Imported European
_____________ fly Japanese

151. Biparental sexual reproduction involves the production of sex cells called __________, each of which contains half of the genetic complement of an individual. Two such cells fuse to form a(n) ____________. Sex cells contributed by males are called ______________, and tend to be small and mobile, whereas sex cells contributed by females are called __________, and tend to be large and imobile. These female sex cells are produced in organs called _____________.