final 95 Ent. 105
Final exam
May 12, 1995

1. Biparental sexual reproduction involves the production of sex cells called __________, each of which contains half of the genetic complement of an individual. Two of these sex cells fuse to form a(n) ___________. The sex cells contributed by the male parent, called _____________, are small and mobile, and are produced in organs called ____________. The sex cells contributed by the female parent, called _____________, are generally large and immobile and are produced in organs called _____________.

2. Name an arthropod with indirect sperm transfer: ________________

3. True or false: Spermatheca are found only in male insects.

4. Circle the correct choice in each paragraph:
In humans, the gender of individuals with XY chromosomes is (male/female); in Lepidoptera, the gender of individuals with XY chromosomes is (male/female).

5. Sexual reproduction generates _____________, which is essential for surviving in a changeable world.

6. In which order(s) does parthenogenetic reproduction commonly occur?
a. Trichoptera
b. Homoptera
c. Hemiptera
d. All of the above

7. In which order(s) is haplodiploidy commonly found?
a. Thysanoptera
b. Hymenoptera
c. Diptera
d. All of the above

8. From what species was bombykol first isolated?

9. List two ways insect sex pheromones can be used to control pests:

10. What kind of pheromone attracts males and females to a common location?
a. aggregation pheromone
b. aphrodisiac pheromone
c. alarm pheromone

11. Match the term with the definition:
a. locus 1. alternative state of a gene or trait
b. allele 2. location of a gene on a chromosome
c. mutation 3. physical appearance of an organism
d. phenotype 4. change in a gene, either in DNA sequence or location

12.a What is the name of the scientist who proposed the theory of natural selection?
b. In what book was this theory first proposed?

13. Two reasons Drosophila melanogaster is such an excellent organism for genetic studies are:

14. Classify the following pesticides as inorganics, synthetic organics, or botanicals:
a. Paris Green
b. hydrocyanic acid
c. DDT
d. pyrethrum

15. Which of the following insecticides is(are) chlorinated hydrocarbons?
a. DDT
b. gamma-lindane
c. dieldrin
d. parathion

16. True or false: Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring, was met with immediate scientific and government acclaim.

17. What is a secondary pest?

18. BT endotoxin is a(n):
a. alkaloid
b. protein
c. low molecular weight acid
d. pheromone

19. List two ways pheromones can be used in insect control:

20. What is the ancestral (native) home of the imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta?
a. Africa
b. South America
c. Asia
d. Europe

21. Why is Solenopsis invicta known as a "fire" ant?

22. Which insecticide has been used in the campaign to eradicate fire ants?
a. dieldrin
b. heptachlor
c. Mirex
d. all of the above

23. Of the states listed below, which has(have) fire ant problems today?
a. New York
b. Illinois
c. Mississippi
d. Texas

24. Is "African" bee an accurate name for Apis mellifera scutellata?

25. Is "killer bee" an accurate name for Apis mellifera scutellata?

26. When were African bees first introduced into the Western Hemisphere?
a. 1937
b. 1947
c. 1957
d. 1967

27. List two things beekeepers are doing to minimize killer bee impacts on agriculture in the US:

28. Which of the following orders contain many coprophagous species?
a. Hemiptera
b. Ephemeroptera
c. Coleoptera
d. Diptera

29. Annual dung beetle contributions to the US economy through clearing pastureland, recycling nitrogen, and reducing parasite loads of livestock amount to approximately:
a. $200,000
b. $2,000,000
c. $2,000,000,000
d. $2,000,000,000,000

30. Name two diseases that may be vectored by house flies as a result of their dungfeeding habits:

31. List one anatomical/behavioral feature of the sacred scarab that led ancient Egyptians to associate it with the sun:

32. Irrational fear of insects is known as ________________.

33. What age groups are most prone to delusory parasitosis?
a. children ages 2-12
b. teenagers
c. young adults
d. men and women past middle age

34. What is flooding therapy?
a. confrontation with the feared object
b. observing others handle the feared object
c. relaxation via mental imaging
d. placement of subject in catastrophic situation

35. Under what circumstances might a phobic response to insects be considered adaptive?

36. Provide one example of an entomological error made by a court:

37. The presence of which of the following insects in an apartment might be considered a violaton of an implied warranty of habitability on the part of a landlord?
a. cluster flies
b. boxelder bugs
c. cockroaches
d. head lice

38. What are two reasons beekeepers might sue their neighbors?

39. Under insurance laws, other than by stinging or biting a driver, insects have caused motor vehicle accidents that resulted in liability for injury or damages. Give one example:

40. Who wrote "American Entomology," published in 1824-48, probably the first entomological publication of national scope?
a. Frederick Valentine Melsheimer
b. Mark Catesby
c. Thomas Say
d. Asa Fitch

41.Describe two contributions of Charles Valentine Riley to the development of entomology in the United States.

42. Two legislative acts greatly affected the history of entomology in the US. The ____________________ provided each state with 30,000 acres per Senator and Representative for the construction of agricultural and industrial colleges: the ___________________ created a nationwide system of state agricultural experiment stations.

43. With what university was entomologist Stephen A. Forbes, one of the founders of the science of ecology in the US, associated?
a. Harvard
b. Cornell
c. University of Illinois
d. University of Missouri

44. The most popular insect order among collectors is the __________________.

45. Name two major markets for mass-reared insects:

46. Name two insects that are mass-reared for sale:

47. Provide an example that proves the following statement false:
Butterfly zoos and voliaries are restricted to places with warm mild climates year-round.

48. What is an insect wrangler?

49. Before Alfred Kinsey made a name for himself as a sex researcher, he was known to entomologists as an expert on ________________.

50. Top prices for insect specimens paid by collectors are in the range of :
a. $100-200
b. $1,000-2,000
c. $10,000-20,000
d. $100,000+

51. Which insects are involved in totemic systems in Africa?
a. mantids
b. bees
c. cockroaches
d. all of the above

52. Aesop wrote many fables featuring insects. Describe the insect characters in one fable and the moral characters attributed to them by Aesop.

54. What insect might you expect to find on the Combe family coat of arms?

55. Why is the boll weevil and appropriate mascot for sports teams at the University of Arkansas at Monticello?

56. What is the state insect of Illinois?

57. Match the filmmaker with his entomological connection:

a. Segundo de Chomon 1. First puppet animation of an insect
b. Wladislaw Starewicz 2. First line drawing cartoon featuring an insect
c. Winsor McCay 3. Director of several "big bug" films of the fifties
d. Bert I. Gordon 4. Discovered animation by watching fly footage

58. Describe two conventions typically found in insect cartoons:

59. Bees appear frequently in insect fear films because their behavior is so easily manipulated. Describe two ways to control bee behavior:

60. List two behavioral or anatomical features of Jiminy Cricket that are entomologically incorrect:

61. What insect, typical of paintings of the era, appears in the Master of Frankfurt's "Self Portrait of the Painter with his Wife"?

62. True or false: Aposematic insects appear more frequently in illuminated manuscripts than do cryptic insects.

63. How old are the oldest depictions of insects?
a. 600 years old
b. 6,000 years old
c. 60,000 years old
d. 600,000 years old

64. Match the song with its genre:
a. El Grillo 1. fold
b. Ballad of the Boll Weevil 2. rock
c. Cicada Serenade 3. rap
d. Boris the Spider 4. classical

65. Name a song that uses insect images as representative of lust, desire, or sexual danger:

66. Complete the common names of these introduced insects using the list below:

______________ cabbageworm Hessian
______________ beetle German
______________ fly Japanese
______________ cockroach Imported European

67. True or false: The number of European insects introduced into the US that have become established residents is far less than the number of American insects introduced into Europe that have become residents.

68. The Xerces Society, dedicated to protecting endangered insect species, is named in honor of:
a. a lepidopterist who dedicated his life to preserving endangered species
b. an endangered species of butterfly
c. an extinct species of butterfly
d. an endangered species of beetle

69. Provide an example that proves the following statement false:
All introductions of insects into this country have been accidental and undesirable.

70. In the scientific name Schistocerca gregaria:
a. what taxonomic unit is designated by Schistocerca?
b. what taxonomic unit is designated by gregaria?
c. what is this insect?

71. Who wrote the book, Systema Naturae, in 1758?
a. Thomas Malthus
b. Carolus Linnaeus
c. Charles Darwin
d. Maria Sibylla Merian

72. Approximately how many insect species have scientific names?
a. 8,000
b. 80,000
c. 800,000
d. 8,000,000

73. Fill in the blanks:
Kingdom, _____________, _____________, Order, _____________, Genus, ___________.

74. Circle the correct words below at the slashes:
Arthropods have a single/double ventral nerve cord and a(n) closed/open circulatory system. Reproduction is generally sexual/asexual.

75. Insects generally have one/two pair(s) of antennae on their heads and two/three pairs of legs on the thorax.

76. Insect cuticle is made up of two major components, a carbohydrate polymer called _________ and a protein called ___________.

77. In holometabolous development, adult tissues are quiescent throughout the immature stages in islands of adult cells called _________ __________.

78. A pupal stage is characteristic of
a. all arthropods
b. all insects
c. hemimetabolous insects only
b. holometabolous insects only

79. Olfactory receptors detect:
a. chemical signals in solution
b. chemical signals in air
c. sound impulses
d. ultraviolet light

80. Match the insect with the body part making the sound:

a. cricket 1. wings
b. deathwatch beetle 2. spiracles
c. hissing cockroach 3. tymbal
d. cicada 4. head

81. Identify the sex or sexes resonsible for putting out the signal described below:
a. cricket chirping
b. firefly flashing
c. long-distance sex pheromone

82. What three traits define eusociality?

83. In social insects, division of labor among workers can be based on worker ________ and ____________.

84. Where do honey bees get wax?
a. they collect it from plant surfaces
b. they secrete it from glands on the abdomen
c. they secrete it from glands on the head
d. they regurgitate it from their stomachs

85. What are two things bees do to turn nectar into honey?

86. Pollen has a high content of:
a. protein
b. lipids
c. carbohydrate
d. water

87. Nectar has a high content of
a. protein
b. lipids
c. carbohydrate
d. water

88. The economic value of bee pollination in the US each year is on the order of:
a. one million dollars
b. 100 million dollars
c. one billion dollars
d. ten billion dollars

89. In plants, pollen is produced in structures called ___________. Insect pollinators collect pollen and deliver it to the _____________, the receptive surface of the pistil.

90. What does the word "frass" mean?

91. Gallforming insects are common in the order(s):
a. Diptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Hymenoptera
d. Plecoptera

92. Insects that suck plant sap are found primarily in the order(s):
a. Siphonaptera
b. Collembola
c. Homoptera
d. Odonata

93. List two characteristics that populations possess that individuals lack:

94. Correct this sentence: The longer the generation time, the greater the reproductive potential.

95. The vast majority of homopterans are economically harmful rather than beneficial. How are homopterans harmful?
a. they suck blood and spread diseases among humans and other vertebrates
b. they suck plant sap and spread diseases among plants
c. they sting
d. all of the above.

95. What are the following homopteran products used for?
a. shellac
b. manna
c. cochineal

96.In addition to products, homopterans also provide useful services to humans. What useful service does the cochineal scale provide with respect to its host the prickly pear cactus?
a. it pollinates the plant, which is grown for its fruit.
b. it kills the plant, which is a weed.
c. it disperses the seeds of the plant, which is grown for its fruit.

97. List two anatomical traits that characterize gallmaking insects in general:

98. Match the insect with its hostplant:
a. pamakani gall fly 1. grapevines
b. phylloxera 2. oak trees
c. Aleppo gall 3. Mexican devil weed

99. When combined with iron salts, tannic acid forms a precipitate that is ___________ in color.

100. List two properties of silk that make it such a desirable fiber:

101. Silk fabric production was first practiced in
a. India
b. Greece
c. Japan
d. China

102. What does Bombyx mori eat?

103. To what order does Bombyx mori belong?

104. Sericin is
a. the proteinaceous inner layer of silk thread
b. the gummy outer layer of silk thread
c. the name of the organ that secretes silk
d. the Japanese name for immature silkworms

105. In the following orders, indicate whether carnivory is rarely (R), commonly (C), or always (A) present:

106. Many predators of active prey use ______________ to paralyze and immobilize their prey.

107. In which of the following order(s) can parasitoids be found?
a. Diptera
b. Psocoptera
c. Phthiraptera
d. Hymenoptera

108. Swallowtail caterpillars defend themselves with
a. quinones released from a reactor gland
b. isobutyric acid released from an osmeterial gland
c. aldehydes released from an oozing gland.

109. ________________ is one form of internal defense against parasitoids.

110. Cardiac glycosides are sequestered from plants by:
a. pipevine caterpillars
b. milkweed bugs
c. blister beetles
d. ants

111. Which of the following can be classified as aposematic?
a. crab spiders that change color to match their background
b. peppered moth
c. monarch butterfly
d. walkingstick

112. True or false: Contamination of food with insect parts or excrement is against the law.

113. Correct this statement: According to the Old Testament, dung beetles are kosher.

114. Which of the following statements is(are) true?
a. Insects are a good source of vitamins
b. Insects are a good source of minerals
c. Insects are low in protein
d. Insects are low in salt and cholesterol.

115. The active component of extracts of Spanishfly is a chemical called ____________.

116. What is maggot therapy?

117. Bee venom is widely used in the treatment of:
a. memory loss
b. arthritis
c. heart disease
d. diabetes

118. Match the insect product with its pharmacological activity:
a. diamphidiatoxin a. kills germs
b. cantharidin b. attacks the nervous system
c. allantoin c. raises blisters
d. formic acid d. reddens the skin

119. Which order(s) contain(s) species that are ectoparasitic as both immatures and adults ?
a. Ephemeroptera
b. Phthiraptera
c. Siphonaptera
d. Megaloptera

120. Provide an example of an athropod involved in
a. dermatosis
b. myiasis
c. urtication
d. allergy

121. Match the common name with the scientific name:

a.Pulex irritans 1. Cat flea
b. Ctenocephalides felis 2. Human flea
c. Xenopsylla cheopis 3. Oriental rat flea

122. Yersinia pestis is a
a. bacterium
b. virus
c. nematode
d. virus

123. What is resilin?

124. What disease is caused by Yersinia pestis?

125. Species in what genus of mosquito are principal vectors of yellow fever?
a. Anopheles
b. Aedes
c. Toxorhynchites
d. Culex

126. Yellow fever is caused by a
a. bacterium
b. rickettsia
c. virus
d. protozoan

127. Aedes albopictus was introduced from Japan into the US, probably in _____________.

128. Species in what genus of mosquito are principal vectors of malaria?
a. Anopheles
b. Aedes
c. Toxorhynchites
d. Culex

129. Plasmodium is a
a. bacterium
b. rickettsia
c. virus
d. protozoan

130. Is the mosquito or the human a definitive host for Plasmodium?

131. In which of the following order(s) is(are) all immature stages aquatic?
a. Odonata
b. Trichoptera
c. Coleoptera
d. Ephemeroptera

132. Why are bloodworms called bloodworms?

133. Match the method for obtaining oxygen with the aquatic insect:

a. siphon 1. immature stoneflies
a. plastron 2. rat-tailed maggot
b. physical gill 3. aquatic beetle eggs
c. tracheal gill 4. adult beetle

134. Of the orders listed below, which is/are NOT popular with fly fishermen?
a. Ephemeroptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Diptera
d. Plecoptera

135. A salmonfly is a species in the order:
a. Ephemeroptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Diptera
d. Plecoptera

136. Match the scientific name with the common name:

Pediculus humanus humanus Pediculus humanus capitis Phthirus pubis
Head louse Body louse Crab louse

137. Typhus is caused by a:
a. virus
b. rickettsia
c. protozoan
d. nematode

138. Typhus is/is not always fatal to a louse.

139. A nit is:
a. an immature louse
b. a louse egg
c. a louse dropping
d. a mark on the skin made by louse feeding

140. Most of the truly necrophagous species are in the orders:
a. Lepidoptera and Mecoptera
b. Psocoptera and Zoraptera
c. Coleoptera and Diptera
d. Hymenoptera and Orthoptera

141. Which insects are usually first to arrive at a dead body?
a. hister beetles
b. cheese skipper
c. skin and hide beetles
d. blow flies