Exam1--1997 Insects and People
First hour exam
February 21, 1997

1. In the scientific name Bombyx mori,
a. which part of the name designates the species?
b. which part of the name designates the genus?
c. why is the name written in italics?
d. who is this insect?

2. The name "German cockroach" is an example of:
a. a patronym
b. a common name
c. a binomial name
d. a scientific name

3. What is the name of the person who invented the system of nomenclature
in widespread use today?

4. What is one type of name that is not allowed according to the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature?

5. Fill in the blanks in the taxonomic hierarchy--

6. In the phylum Arthropoda:
a. is the nerve cord dorsal or ventral?
b. is the circulatory system open or closed?

7. For the following orders, indicate if the number of pairs of walking
legs is 3, 4, or more than 4:





8. Species in which of the following groups molt throughout adult life?



9. True or false: Smaller organisms tend to have proportionately more
surface area for their volume than do larger organisms.

10. Insect cuticle is made up of two major components, one of which is a
carbohydrate polymer and one of which is a protein. The carbohydrate
component is called
a. cutin
b. cellulose
c. chitin
d. carminic acid

11. Which portion of the cuticle is primarily responsible for the
production of new exoskeleton?
a. epicuticle
b. endocuticle
c. exocuticle
d. epidermal cells

12. What material enters the body of an insect through the spiracles and
moves through the tracheae?

13. Imaginal discs are found in
a. hemimetabolous insects
b. holometabolous insects
c. both holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects
d. noninsect arthropods

14. What are the life stages in chronological sequence characteristic of
insects with holometabolous development?

15. Ethology is:
a. the study of insects
b. the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms
c. the study of behavior in an environmental context
d. the study of structure and function of body parts

16. Specialized cuticular structures equipped with neurons are called

17. What type of receptor is used to detect
a. chemicals in solution?
b. airborne chemicals?
c. light?

18. A single unit of a compound eye is a(n)
a. rhabdom
b. cornea
c. ommatidium
d. ocellus

19. True or false: Unlike humans, honey bees can detect ultraviolet light.

20. Which of the following is an example of a secondary transverse
a. basking in the sunlight to increase body temperature
b. wiggling violently when a bright light is encountered
c. navigating relative to the position of stars
d. flying upwind along a chemical gradient.

21. Which of the following is an example of habituation?
a. tool use
b. cockroach indifference to light in an apartment
c. honey bee "house hunting"
d. proboscis eversion in response to an acoustical signal

22. Name the body part used for producing sound in each of these insects:
a. cicada
b. deathwatch beetle
c. cricket
d. hissing cockroach

24. In the abdomen of adult fireflies is a light-producing organ; cells in
these "lanterns" contain an substance called luciferin which reacts in the
presence of ___________ and an enzyme called ______________ to produce

25. Which order(s) of insects are entirely phytophagous?
a. Orthoptera
b. Homoptera
c. Phasmida
d. Acarina
e. both b and c
f. all of the above

26. Puddling by butterflies is a behavior that helps to relieve what
nutritional deficiency, associated with a vegetarian diet?

27. In what part of the caterpillar alimentary system are digestive and
detoxification enzymes secreted?
a. foregut
b. midgut
c. hindgut
d. along the entire length of the alimentary canal

28. List two ways artificial selection has altered the biology of crop plants:

29. About when were crop plants first domesticated?
a. 1,000 years ago
b. 10,000 years ago
c. 100,000 years ago
d. 1,000,000 years ago

30. Carrying capacity is (choose a or b)
a. the number of viable eggs or embryos that a particular female can carry
b. the number of individuals that a particular habitat can sustain given
its resources.

31. Classify the following mortality factors as density-dependent or
a. extreme cold
b. disease

32. Which environmental cues are NOT associated with the appearance of the
migratory phase of Schistocerca gregaria?
a. sunspot activity
b. crowding
c. decline in food quality
d. decrease in photoperiod

33. Melanoplus spretus, a species of migratory locust, is native to
a. the Middle East
b. Africa
c. North America
d. Australia

34. What is the biological explanation for the apparent success of insect

35. Which of the following organisms can induce galls in plants?
a. virus
b. nematode
c. insect
d. mite
e. all of the above

36. The vast majority of gall formers are found in only two families, the
Cynipidae in the order ______________ and the Cecidomyiidae in the order

37. Phylloxera vitifoliae is
a. useful as a source of tannic acid
b. destructive because it kills grape vines
c. beneficial as a biocontrol agent for Mexican devil weed
d. beneficial as a pollinator of almond trees.

38. Two anatomical traits that characterize gallmaking insects include

39a. To what order does Bombyx mori belong?
b. What does this insect eat?

40. Sericin is
a. a chemical in galls used to make ink
b. a red pigment used to dye cloth
c. the substrate used in generating light in firefly abdomens
d. the gummy outer coating of silk

41. Louis Pasteur characterized pebrine, a disease of silkworms caused by
a. a nutritional deficiency
b. genetic mutation
c. microbial infection
d. sublethal exposure to insecticides

42. What is a "glass transition temperature" and is it high or low for
spider silk?

43. Two properties of silk that make it such a desirable fiber include

44. Why were gypsy moths introduced into the U.S. in the nineteenth century?

45. Insect pollinators collect pollen and deliver it to the stigma, the
receptive surface of the _____________.

46. Provide an example that proves the following statement false:
Plants always reward their insect pollinators with nectar or pollen.

47. Flowers that are purplish in color and emit a fetid odor are likely
pollinated by ____________.

48. How is a cheeseburger the indirect result of insect pollination?

49. The ___________ is used by bees to carry nectar and the ___________ is
used by bees to carry pollen.

50. The chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao, is pollinated by species in the order
a. Hymenoptera
b. Diptera
c. Coleoptera
d. Ephemeroptera.

51. Compared to nectar, pollen is
a. higher in fats and protein and lower in carbohydrates
b. lower in fats and protein and higher in carbohydrates
c. identical in terms of its nutrient content
d. almost never consumed by insects

52. Name a plant disease vectored by aphids:

53. The process by which male lac scale insects acquire legs, wings, and
antennae after being without these structures during their immature stages
is called _______________.

54. Which of the following is NOT a property of lac?
a. it is very thermoplastic
b. it dissolves in a wide array of solvents
c. it adheres well to surfaces
d. it is biodegradable

55. Correct this sentence:Cochineal insects, native to Mexico, feed
exclusively on tamarisk trees.

56. Two contemporary uses of cochineal include:

57. Two ways of processing plant products for storage has made life easier
for stored product insects include

58. Which of the following are primary pests of grain?
a. rice weevil
b. Mediterranean flour moth
c. carpet beetle
d. drugstore beetle

59. What is an aggregation pheromone?

60. How are silverfish "bookworms"

61. Which of the following is NOT a defining characteristic of eusociality
in insects?
a. reproductive division of labor
b. cooperative care of offspring
c. holometabolous development
d. overlap of generations

62. What two things do bees do with nectar to convert it into honey?

63. List two ways honey is used, other than in baking:

64. Division of labor among workers in social insect colonies can be based
on _________ and on ____________.

65. In the space provided, sketch a typical gall, indicating
the location of the nutritive layer, the protective layer, and
the central chamber, relative to layers of normal plant
parenchyma and epidermal cells.

66. What is "frass"?

67. Eggs of cockroaches and mantids are carried in structures called

68. What two orders are entirely phytophagous?
In which of these orders are sucking mouthparts used to obtain plant sap?

69. Which of the following orders is NOT holometabolous?
a. Hymenoptera
b. Lepidoptera
c. Orthoptera
d. Diptera