1exam95 Ent. 105
Insects and People Name _____________________________
First Hour Exam
February 15, 1995

1. In the scientific name Bombyx mori,
a. what taxonomic unit is designated by Bombyx?
b. what taxonomic unit is designated by mori?
c. who is this insect?

2. a. Why are scientific names italicized or underlined?
b. What is the name of the person who invented the two-name (binomial) system of nomenclature?

3. Approximately how many insect species have scientific names?

4. Fill in the blanks in the taxonomic hierarchy:
Kingdom, Phylum, _______, Order, _________, Genus, ___________

5. Arachnids have two body divisions, ____________ and abdomen and ______ pairs of walking legs.

6. Members of the Class Insecta have bodies with three sections--________, ___________, ___________, and _______ pairs of legs

7. All members of the order ____________ feed on plants.

8. The larval stage of species in the order Lepidoptera are called _____________; the larval stages of species in the order Coleoptera are called ______________.

9. Insect cuticle is made up of two major components, a carbohydrate polymer called _________ and a protein called ___________.

10. Describe one disadvantage of possessing an exoskeleton:

11. Oxygen enters the body of an insect through openings called __________ and moves through the body in a system of tubes called __________.

12. The surface area/volume ratio means that smaller animals have
a. proportionately more surface area for their volume
b. proportionately less surface area for their volume
c. the same surface area for their volume

13. Match the tissue or cell type on the left with its functions on the right:
epicuticle produces new exoskeleton
endo- and exo-cuticle waterproofing
epidermal cells provides rigidity

14. In holometabolous development, adult tissues are quiescent throughout the immature stages in islands of adult cells called __________ ___________.

15. Ethology is:
a. the study of insects
b. the study of the distribution and abundance of organisms
c. the study of behavior in an environmental context
d. the study of structure and function of body parts

16.Hairlike sensory structures on insects that detect environmental stimuli are called _____ _____.

17. Whereas ___________ receptors detect airborne chemical signals, ___________ receptors detect close-range chemical signals in solution.

18. A single unit of a compound eye is a(n) ____________; an example of a simple eye is a(n) ______.

19. Match the insect with the body part making the sound and the system for producing sound:
cricket spiracles muscular contraction causes vibration
deathwatch beetle wings scraping file on ridge
hissing cockroach tymbal knocking on substrate
cicada head forcing air through to whistle

20. Correct this sentence:
Whereas only male fireflies produce light signals, both male and female crickets communicate by stridulating, or chirping.

21. What is luciferin?

22. In plants, pollen is produced in structures called ___________. Insect pollinators collect pollen and deliver it to the ___________, the receptive surface of the pistil.

23. Which of the following substances is NOT abundant in nectar?
a. water
b. B vitamins
c. protein
d. sugars

24. Match the pollination syndrome with the floral characteristics:

phalaenophily a. fetid odor, purplish colors
cantharophily b. nocturnal anthesis, pale colors
psychophily c. bright colors, long thin spurs
myophily d. open flowers, abundant pollen

25. The economic value of bee pollination in the US each year is on the order of:
a. one million dollars
b. 100 million dollars
c. one billion dollars
d. ten billion dollars

26. Match the plant with its pollinator:
clover a. midge
chocolate tree b. wasp
almonds c. bumble bees
figs d. honey bees

27. Water and nutrients are carried in the ______ , which is consumed by cicadas: carbohydrates are transported in the ___________, which is consumed by aphids.

28. Most herbivorous insects are (polyphagous/oligophagous/monophagous), which means they eat (many/few/only one) plant species.

29. List two characteristics that make plants less than ideal food for insects:

30. Match the plant disease with the insect vector:
a. cucurbit wilt 1. aphids
b. aster yellows 2. spotted cucumber beetle
c. fire blight 3. flies and bees
d. carrot redleaf 4. leafhoppers

31. Three factors that increase reproductive potential are:

32. Classify the following mortality factors as density-dependent or density-independent:
a. competition for food
b. tornado

33. Where is the Intertropical Convergence Zone and what does it have to do with locusts?

34. True or false: Locusts can eat their own weight in food in a day.

35. Is there a biological explanation for the apparent success of insect exorcisms? If so, what is it?

36. True or false: Due to modern control techniques, locust swarms have serious economic consequences.

37. How would you contrast the locomotory behaviors of species in the two major suborders of Homoptera, the Auchenorrhyncha and the Sternorrhyncha?

38. The vast majority of homopterans are economically harmful rather than beneficial. How are homopterans harmful?
a. They suck blood and spread diseases among humans and other vertebrates
b. They suck plant sap and spread diseases among plants
c. They sting
d. All of the above.

39. Match the geographical area with the homopteran of economic importance:
a. lac scale 1. Middle East
b. cochineal scale 2. Mexico
c. manna scale 3. India

40. What are the following homopteran products used for?
a. manna
b. shellac
c. cochineal

41. In addition to products, homopterans alos provide useful services to humans. What useful service does the cochineal scale provide with respect to its host the prickly-pear cactus?

42. List four properties of silk that make it such a desirable fiber:

43. True or false: The nation where silk fabric production was first practiced is today the world's leading producer of silk.

44. What does Bombyx mori eat?

45. Provide information that proves the following statement false: Production of silk fabric was never of major economic importance in any city in the United States.

46. Silk consists of two materials, a proteinaceous inner layer called _________ and a gummy outer covering called ___________.

47. Aside from caterpillars, what other arthropods are used as commercial sources of silk?

Give an example of a product made with silk from this source.

48. To what order does Bombyx mori belong?

49. What is a gall?

50. List two anatomical traits that characterize gallmaking insects in general:

51. The vast majority of gallformers are found in only two families, the Cecidomyiidae, a family in the order _____________ and the Cynipidae, a family in the order ________________.

52. Classify the following gallmakers as useful or destructive, and then explain why they are either useful or destructive.
a. phylloxera

b. Aleppo gall

53. When combined with iron salts, tannic acid forms a precipitate that is ____________ in color.

54. What three traits define eusociality?

55. Which three groups of social insects are most closely related to one another?

56. True or false:
In honey bee colonies, division of lbor among workers is based on differences in worker morphology.

57. Where do bees get wax to build their combs?

58. What is the single most important economic benefit derived from honey bees?
a. wax
b. honey
c. pollination
d. royal jelly

59. How do bees carry pollen back to the hive?

60. List two things that bees do to turn nectar into honey:

61. What are two reasons honey is widely used in the baking industry?