Exam 1--1998 Ent. 105 Name _______________________
Insects and People
First hour exam
February 20, 1998

1. The category "Insecta" represents a
a. kingdom
b. phylum
c. class
d. order

2. Fill in the blank in the taxonomic hierarchy:
family, __________, species

3. Which is the correct way to write the scientific name of the cochineal scale?
a. Dactylopius Coccus
b. Dactylopius coccus
c. Dactylopius coccus
d. dactylopius coccus

4. What contribution did Carolus Linnaeus make to the science of systematics?

5. Which of the following is the name of an insect family?
a. Ephemeroptera
b. Onagraceae
c. Apis

6. True or false: A single unit of a compound eye is an ocellus.

7. Which of the following insects makes sounds by vibrating a tymbal by muscular contraction?
a. cicada
b. deathwatch beetle
c. hissing cockroach
d. cricket

8. Fill in the blanks:
In the abdomen of adult fireflies is a light-producing organ; cells in these "lanterns' contain an enzyme, called ____________, which reacts with a substance, called ____________, in the presence of __________ to produce __________.

9. Two places on moths and butterflies that are well equipped with chemoreceptors are

10. Basking by dragonflies in early morning to absorb solar radiation is an example of a
a. taxis
b. kinesis
c. primary transverse orientation
d. secondary transverse orientation

11. Provide an example of latent learning in an insect.

12. Which of the following traits is NOT a defining trait for eusociality?
a. cooperative brood care
b. collective defense behavior
c. overlap of generation
d. reproductive division of labor

13. The closest relatives of the termites are
a. ants
b. bees
c. cockroaches
d. beetles

14. Where do bees get wax to build combs?
a. They collect resins from tree trunks near the hive
b. They synthesize it in abdominal glands
c. They synthesize it in the corbicula
d. They strip it off the surfaces of leaves

15. In honey bee colonies, division of labor among workers is based on differences in worker ___________.

16. Two things honey bees do to turn nectar into honey include

17. Two other ways that honey is used commercially, besides in baking, are:

18. One behavioral trait that bees display that increases nectar-collecting efficiency is:
a. reproductive division of labor
b. cooperative brood care
c. production of alarm pheromones
d. communication by "dancing"

19. Insect pollinators collect pollen and deliver it to the stigma, the receptive surface of the _________ of the female flower.

20. Name two ways plants can get pollinated that involve animals other than insects.

21. The term used to describe pollination via simulation of a prospective mate is ______________.

22. How does the production of cheese and beef derive indirectly from insect pollination?

23. Psychophilous flowers are characterized by
a. bright colors and long thin spurs
b. fetid odors and purplish colors
c. nocturnal anthesis and pale colors
d. open flowers with abundant pollen

24. The economic value of bee pollination in the U.S. each year is on the order of:
a. one million dollars
b. ten million dollars
c. one billion dollars
d. ten billion dollars

25. Honey bees are important pollinators of
a. figs
b. chocolate tree
c. almonds
d. all of the above

26. Where is the wax layer found?
a. epicuticle
b. endocuticle
c. exocuticle
d. epidermal cells

27. Which of the following materials is the carbohydrate polymer found in insect cuticle?
a. sclerotin
b. chitin
c. keratin
d. luciferin

28. In holometabolous development, adult tissues are quiescent throughout the immature stages in islands of adult cells called ___________ ___________.

29. True or false: Hemimetabolous development is characterized by a pupal stage.

30. Oxygen enters the body of an insect through openings called ___________ and moves through the body in a system of tubes called ___________.

31. In which of the following classes do organisms possess a cephalothorax?
a. Class Crustacea
b. Class Chilopoda
c. Class Arachnida
d. Class Diplopoda

32. In which of the following classes do organisms possess antennae?
a. Insecta
b. Arachnida
c. Crustacea
d. both a and c

33. In which of the following classes do organisms possess three pairs of walking legs?
a. Crustacea
b. Chilopoda
c. Arachnida
d. Insecta

34. For the orders below, indicate how many pairs of wings are possessed by species in the order:

Order Number of wing pairs
a. Thysanura________
b. Diptera________
c. Hemiptera ________
d. Phthiraptera ________

35. Provide an exception that proves the following statement false:
In the phylum Arthropoda, herbivores are found only in the class Insecta.

36. Which two orders are exclusively herbivorous?

37. About when were crop plants first domesticated?
a. 1,000,000 years ago
b. 100,000 years ago
c. 10,000 years ago
d. 3,000 years ago

38. List two ways artificial selection has altered the biology of crop plants:

39. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic that makes plant foliage less than ideal food for insects?
a. low protein content
b. presence of toxins
c. low fiber content
d. low salt content

40. True or false: The shorter the generation time, the greater the reproductive potential.

41. Which of the following mortality factors is likely to act in a density-independent manner?
a. disease
b. competition for food
c. parasites
d. fire

42. List two environmental cues that may promote the appearance of gregarious locusts:

43. What is the scientific name of the migratory locust of Africa and the Middle East?
a. Schistocerca solitaria
b. Schistocerca gregaria
c. Melanoplus spretus
d. Blatta orientalis

44. Cultivation of Bombyx mori is known as _____________.

45. List two properties of silk that make it such a desirable fiber:

46. Silk consists of two materials, a proteinaceous inner layer called _________ and a gummy outer covering called ____________.

47. What is the most common commercial application for silk from spiders?

48. Margarodids are homopterans known as ground pearls due to their appearance (they're round in shape with legs that are reduced in size) and their habit of living on roots of plants and encasing themselves with a waxy secretion all over their bodies; to which suborder do these insects belong?
a. Auchenorrhyncha
b. Sternorrhyncha

49. List two properties of lac that make it a useful material:

50. Provide the common name for the following homopterans:

Laccifer lacca__________________
Dactylopius coccus__________________
Trabutina mannipara__________________

51. What is the hostplant for the cochineal scale?
a. banyan tree
b. tamarisk tree
c. Mexican devil weed
d. prickly pear

52. In what two orders are the majority of gall-forming insects found?

53. List two anatomical traits that characterize gall-makers in general.

54. What gall-forming insect is important in the production of ink?
a. phylloxera
b. pamakani gall fly
c. Aleppo gall wasp

55. When combined with iron salts, ______ _______ from galls forms a precipitate that is blue-black in color.

56. Which of the following traits is NOT possessed by most stored product insects?
a. tolerance of dry conditions
b. tolerance of toxins
c. absence of functional anus
d. small size

57. The rice weevil Sitophilus oryza is a small reddish-brown beetle with a long slender snout, at the tip of which are mandibles used to bore into kernels of rice, corn, and other grain. This insect can be classified as a
a. primary pest
b. secondary pest

58. Where is the protein keratin found?
a. in the cuticle of insects
b. in animal fur or hair
c. in the protective layer of a gall
d. in the inner core of caterpillar silk

59. Name two orders in which large numbers of stored product pests are found:

60. Pseudococcus comstocki, the Comstock mealybug, is named in honor of John Henry Comstock, a famous entomologist from Cornell. This kind of scientific name is called a(n) ____________.

61. While gustatory receptors detect chemical signals in solution, _________ receptors detect chemical signals that are airborne.

62. Specialized cuticular structures equipped with neurons are called ___________.

63. In which type of eusocial insect colony is the queen more easily distinguished from the workers, a primitive or advanced eusocial colony?

64. List two ways nectar differs from pollen as a reward for pollinators:

65. Relative to insects, large animals such as mammals have a surface area/volume ratio
a. greater than that of insects
b. smaller than that of insects
c. exactly the same as that of insects

66. The circulatory system of insects is

67. In which of the following orders do wings fold flat over the body?
a. Dictyoptera
b. Ephemeroptera
c. Odonata
d. Collembola

68. To what distinguishing feature of anatomy do species in the order Thysanoptera owe their name?
a. rasping/sucking mouthparts
b. two pairs of wings fringed with hairs
c. bladderlike structure at tips of legs
d. omnivorous diet

69. The immature stage of a species in the order Lepidoptera is called a(n):
a. grub
b. maggot
c. caterpillar
d. crawler

70. Provide an example of an insect that feeds on xylem: ___________
Is xylem sap higher or lower in carbohydrates than phloem sap?________

71. Define "carrying capacity."

72. To what order does Bombyx mori belong?

73. What nation is the leading producer of silk today?
a. China
b. Japan
c. India
d. Italy

74. Louis Pasteur identified the causative agent of __________, a microbial disease of silkworms.

75. Which of the following plant diseases is vectored by an aphid?
a. alfalfa dwarf
b. sugarcane mosaic
c. aster yellows
d. Pierce's disease

76. What is an aggregation pheromone?

EXTRA CREDIT--To what use do the Aguaruna Indians of Peru put the galls of the duship tree?