Exam 2 1995 Entomology 105
Second Hour Exam
March 27, 1995

1. In the following groups of insects, is carnivory rarely (R), commonly (C), or always (A) present?
a. lacewings
b. damselflies
c. flies
d. caterpillars

2. Name two families of insects whose members attack primarily sedentary prey:

3. Many predators of active prey use __________ to paralyze and immobilize their prey; parasitoids may inject __________ into their prey to arrest development.

4. In which orders can parasitoids be found?
a. Trichoptera
b. Hymenoptera
c. Diptera
d. Ephemeroptera

5. Provide an example of a homotypic insect: ________________.

6. Define thanatosis:

7. True or false: In a Muellerian mimicry complex, both the model and the mimic are toxic.

8. Which of the following colors is usually considered aposematic?
a. black
b. brown
c. orange
d. red

9. Encapsulation is one form of internal defense against _______________.

10. Where would you be most likely to collect Biston betularia insularia, in an industrialized area or in a rural area? Why?

11. Match the chemical defense with its producer:
a. quinones 1. stink bug
b. aldehydes 2. pipevine caterpillar
c. aristolochic acid 3. bombardier beetle
d. isobutyric acid 4. swallowtail caterpillar
12. What is meant by "reflex bleeding"?

13. Which of the following statements is false? a. insects are high in salt and cholesterol
b. insects are good sources of dietary protein
c. insects are low in vitamins and minerals

14. If you were stranded on a tropical island and forced to eat insects, would you choose to eat an aposematic species or a cryptic one? Why?

15. Rank order the following meats in terms of energetic efficiency (efficiency of ingested food into biomass)
a. chicken
b. beef
c. termite

16. List two ways insects can be used to improve human food production aside from being consumed directly:

17. Match the edible insects with the locality where they are consumed:
a. tsukudani (ricehoppers) 1. Thailand
b. gusanos de maguey 2. Japan
c. mang dar na 3. Mexico
d. mopane worms 4. South Africa
18. For what ailments were crickets used to treat by practitioners of the doctrine of signatures:

19. What is the common name of Lytta vesicatoria?

And what chemical is responsible for its pharmacological properties?

20. Bee venom is widely used in the treatment of
a. memory loss
b. arthritis
c. heart disease
d. all of the above

21. Match the pharmacological activity with the insect product:
a. neurotoxin 1. formic acid
b. blistering agent 2. diamphidiatoxin
c. reddening agent 3. cantharidin
d. antibiotic 4. allantoin
22. Some neurotoxic spider venoms work by inhibiting ____________, a chemical that acts as a neurotransmitter substance in vertebrate nervous systems.

23. What is an antineoplastic agent?

In what insect(s) have such agents been found?

24. Match the order with the lifestyle:
a. ectoparasitic as both immatures and adults 1. Siphonaptera
b. endoparasitic as immatures and freeliving as adults 2. Phthiraptera
c. freeliving as immatures and ectoparasitic as adults 3. Diptera
25. Bloodfeeding insects use two different methods for obtaining blood. Which of the following is a vessel feeder (V) and which is a pool feeder (P)?
a. mosquito
b. stable fly
c. flea
d. black fly

26. Where would you expect to find the human parasite Demodex follicularum?

This parasite is a (maggot/mite/flea)/

27. Identify two aspects of vertebrate blood that make it less than ideal as food for insects:

28. Which of the following is(are) characteristic of ectoparasitic insects?
a. thick cuticle
b. flattening of body
c. highly developed sensory appendages
d. aposematic coloration.

29. Mutualistic microorganisms, or _____________, are most often found in species that (are/are not) parasitic in all stages of life.

30. Two physiological reasons for reacting to venomous insects are:

31. While adult fleas feed on __________, larval fleas feed on ____________.

32. Match the common name with the scientific name:
a. Ctenocephalides felis 1. Oriental rat flea
b. Pulex irritans 2. human flea
c. Xenopsylla cheopis 3. cat flea
33. Match the pathogen with its type:
a. Yersinia pestis 1. bacterium
b. Plasmodium falciparum 2. rickettsia
c. Rickettsia prowazecki 3. protozoan
34. Match the pathogen with the disease it causes:
a. Yersinia pestis 1. typhus
b. Plasmodium falciparum 2. plague
c. Rickettsia prowazecki 3. malaria
35. Of the following human diseases, which is(are) fatal to their insect vectors?
a. typhus
b. plague
c. yellow fever
d. malaria

36. Plague may take on three forms. These are:

37. Match the individual with the contribution he made to medical entomology:
a. Benjamin Rush a. identified the flea vector of plague
b. Ronald Ross b. confirmed the role of mosquito as yellow fever vector
c. Charles Rothschild c. proved mosquito transmission of malaria
d. Walter Reed d. prescribed bloodletting to "cure" yellow fever
38. The Middle East/Central Asia is the inveterate focus on Yersinia pestis. What does this mean?

39. In what centuries did the first, second, and third pandemics of plague occur?

40. Yellow fever is caused by a _____________ ; species in the genus __________ are the principal vectors of this disease.

41. Which of the following life stages of a mosquito feed on blood?
a. adult male
b. adult female
c. wiggler
d. tumbler

42. True or false: If a person survives a bout of yellow fever, he or she will have lifetime immunity thereafter.

43. List two reasons that mosquitoes are unlikely vectors for the AIDS virus:

44. Which life stages of Plasmodium are found only in the mosquito?

45. True or false: All aquatic insects are descended from terrestrial forms.

46. The divided eyes of the __________ __________ equip them for life on the surface of the water.

47. Provide an example that proves the following statement false:
Unlike vertebrates, insects do not produce any oxygen-carrying pigments.

48. Whereas immature stoneflies and mayflies have ___________ gills, diving beetles make use of a _____________ gill.

49. In which of the following orders are all immature stages aquatic?
a. Neuroptera
b. Odonata
c. Trichoptera
d. Psocoptera

50. One order NOT popular with flytying fishermen is
a. Diptera
b. Coleoptera
c. Ephemeroptera
d. Plecoptera

51. Describe the mayfly lifestage represented by the following flies:
a. spinner
b. dun
c. humpback
d. spentwing

52. Match the scientific name with the common name:
a. Pediculus humanus humanus 1. head louse
b. Pediculus humanus capitis 2. body louse
c. Phthirus pubis 3. crab louse
53. True or false: Lice inject the pathogens that cause typhus into the feeding site along with saliva.

54. Name two other diseases vectored by lice:

55. Match the contribution with the name:
a. Charles Nicolle 1. practiced sanitation in order to control typhus
b. H. da Rocha Lima 2. died of typhus while studying an epidemic
c. Florence Nightingale 3. described the microbe that causes typhus
d. H. Ricketts 4. identified lice as the principal vectors of typhus
56. Typhus caused major mortality among troops during:
a. Napoleon's march on Moscow
b. the Crimean War
c. World War I
d. all of the above.

57. Most of the truly necrophagous species are in the orders ___________ and ____________.

58. Larvae in the family Calliphoridae (order __________ ) can break down _____________, the principal constituent of connective tissue, and larvae in the family Tineidae (order ____________) can break down ____________, principal component of fur and feathers.

59. Match the stage of decomposition with the characteristic insect associates:
a. fresh 1. cheese skipper
b. caseic fermentation 2. hister and silphid beetles
c. ammoniacal fermentation 3. tineids and dermestids
d. dry 4. blow flies
60. Most pests of stored grains are descended from
a. species that feed on foliage of flowering plants
b. species that feed on seed caches in bird or rodent nests
c. predaceous species
d. species that feed on carrion