Ent. 105

First hour exam

February 21, 2003

Answers in bold

 

1. Which taxonomic hierarchy is correct?

a. Kingdom, Class, Order, Phylum, Family, Species, Genus

b. Kingdom, Phylum, Family, Order, Class, Genus, Species

c. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

d. Species, Genus, Order, Family, Class, Kingdom, Phylum

 

2. Which is the proper way to write the scientific name of the Japanese silkworm?

a. bombyx mori

b. Bombyx Mori

c. Bombyx mori

d. Bombyx mori

 

3. In the scientific name Blattella germanica, what taxonomic unit is designated by Blattella?

a. family

b. genus

c. species

d. subspecies

 

4. Which of the following scientific names is a patronym?

a. Strigiphilus garylarsoni

b. Diabrotica undecimpunctata

c. Helicoverpa zea

d. Papilio multicaudatus

 

5. How long has the Linnaean system of binomial nomenclature been in use?

a. since 1658

b. since 1758

c. since 1858

d. since 1958

 

6. Approximately how many insects have scientific names?

a. 8,000

b. 80,000

c. 800,000

d. 8,000,000

 

7. Which of the following is NOT a defining trait of the Phylum Arthropoda?

a. tagmosis

b. closed circulatory system

c. hard exoskeleton

d. double dorsal nerve cord

 

8. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic trait of the Class Arachnida?

a. three pairs of walking legs

b. no antennae

c. two body divisions

d. chelicerate mouthparts

 

9. Which class of arthropods is characterized by biramous appendages?

a. Diplopoda

b. Chilopoda

c. Crustacea

d. Insecta

 

10. In which order are all species eusocial?

a. Hymenoptera

b. Isoptera

c. Thysanoptera

d.Siphonaptera

 

11. Species in which order molt continuously throughout their adult life?

a. Plecoptera

b. Thysanura

c. Dictyoptera

d. Odonata

 

12. The knob-like hind wings of dipterans are called

a. frenula

b. hamuli

c. halteres

d. furcula

 

13. The surface area/volume ratio means that smaller animals have

a. proportionately less surface area for their volume

b. proportionately more surface area for their volume

c. the same surface area for their volume

 

14. What is one principal function of the insect epicuticle?

a. provides rigidity

b. provides waterproofing

c. produces new exoskeleton

d. provides color and markings

 

15. The carbohydrate polymer in insect cuticle that contributes to rigidity is

a. chitin

b. keratin

c. cellulose

d. collagen

 

16. Which of the following statements is true?

a. Oxygen moves through the body of most insects bound to an oxygen-carrying pigment in the blood.

b. Oxygen moves through the body of most insects in a system of tubes called tracheae.

c. Oxygen moves through the body of most insects in a system of tubes called spiracles. 

d. Oxygen moves through the body of most insects by diffusion.

 

17. In what order would you find imaginal discs?

a. Orthoptera

b. Phthiraptera

c. Hemiptera

d. Diptera

 

18. Species in which of the following order lack a pupal stage?

a. Coleoptera

b. Dictyoptera

c. Hymenoptera

d. Lepidoptera

 

19. Which of the following is a major disadvantage of exoskeletons?

a. Hollow tube-like appendages are not as strong as solid rods made of equivalent material.

b. They’re made of materials that are highly digestible and attractive to many predators.

c. Because they’re rigid, they can’t stretch to accommodate growth.

d. Relatively speaking, they’re heavier and bulkier than endoskeletons. 

 

20. What type of receptor detects airborne chemicals?

a. mechanoreceptor

b. gustatory receptor

c. hygroreceptor

d. olfactory receptor

 

21. What is a single unit of an insect compound eye called?

a. ommatidium

b. ocellus

c. Jacobson’s organ

d. rhabdom

 

22. Moths that orient upwind are displaying what kind of behavior?

a. taxis

b. kinesis

c. primary transverse orientation               

d. secondary transverse orientation

 

23.  In the typical Campustown apartment, cockroaches fail to respond to shouts or obscenities.  This is despite the fact that physiologically they are capable of hearing these shouts and obscenities .This is probably an example of

a. latent learning

b. classical conditioning

c. habituation

d. insight learning.

 

24. In the abdomen of adult fireflies is a light-producing organ; cells in these lanterns contain a substance that reacts with oxygen in the presence of an enzyme to produce light.  What’s the name of the enzyme

a. luciferin

b. luciferase

c. ATP

d. luminol

 

25. What body parts do crickets use to stridulate?

a. their mouths

b. their spiracles

c. their legs

d. their wings

 

26. Which sex is responsible for firefly flashing?

a. Males only

b. Females only

c. Both males and females.

 

27.  What group of insects are termites thought to be descended from?

a. bees

b. ants

c. wasps

d. cockroaches

 

28. Which of the following is NOT a trait defining eusociality?

a. age-related polyethism

b. reproductive division of labor

c. overlap of generations and offspring helping parents

d. cooperative brood care

 

29. In a honey bee colony, which bees act as foragers?

a. young

b. middle-aged

c. old

d. adults of all ages work as foragers

 

30. Nests of polistine paper wasps are founded by a single queen who is generally joined after a while by a few auxiliary queens.  Although these auxiliary queens are basically identical in appearance to the foundress queen, they behave differently--they are subordinate and adopt submissive postures and behaviors around the original foundress . The polistine paper wasp society is an example of

a. a primitive eusocial colony

b. an advanced eusocial colony

c. a subsocial colony

d. a presocial colony

 

31.  Where do bees get wax to build their combs?

a. from resins collected from trees

b. from glands on the abdomens of workers

c. from glands in the head of larvae

d. it’s excreted from the anus.

 

32. Which are the two female castes in a honey bee society?

a. brood and drones

b. drones and queens

c. queens and brood

d. workers and queens

 

33.  Which of the following is NOT done by bees when nectar is converted to honey?

a. they convert sucrose into glucose and fructose

b. they filter out all of the plant toxins in the nectar

c. they evaporate off water by fanning their wings

d. they place it in a wax cell to cure

 

34. Which is NOT present in honey in significant amounts?

a. lipids

b. enzymes

c. vitamins

d. minerals

 

35.  How long has the movable frame hive been in use?

a. since ancient Rome, starting between 2400 and 600 BC

b. since Rome, starting in the first century BC

c. since medieval Europe, starting around 1200 AD

d. in modern times, starting in the nineteenth century

 

36. How big is “bee space”?

a. 1/10 to 1/8 inch

b. 1/4 to 3/8 inch

c. 1/2 to 1 inch

d. 1 to 2 inches

 

37.  Commercially propolis is sold in health food stores because of its high content of

a. sugar

b. wax

c. hormones

d. antioxidants

 

38.  How do varroa mites hurt bees?

a. they suck their blood and weaken them

b. they infest their tracheae and interfere with respiration

c. they weigh down the bee so that foraging becomes difficult

d. they inject toxins that paralyze the bees

 

39.  To produce a pound of wax, a colony has to consume how much honey?

a. one pound

b. ten pounds

c. fifty pounds

d. 100 pounds

 

40. Which of the following is NOT an attribute of honey?

a. it’s hygroscopic

b. it’s sweet

c. it can be high in antioxidants

d. it can be high in protein

 

41. What kind of insect pollinates plants with poricidal anthers?

a. butterflies

b. flies

c. bumble bees

d. beetles

 

42. In plants, pollen is produced in structures called

a. anthers

b. pistils

c. stigmas

d. styles

 

43. What kind of insect pollinates cacao (chocolate tree)?

a. wasp

b. midge

c. honey bees

d. bumble bees

 

 

 

 

 

44. Flowers of Stapelia gigantea are fleshy and reddish-purple in color; they have an odor resembling rotten meat and are pollinated by flies.  What term describes this kind of pollination?

a. cantharophily

b. psychophily

c. phalaneophily

d. sapromyophily

 

45. What body part do bees use to carry pollen?

a. their crop

b. their antennae

c. their corbicula

d. their tarsi

 

46. The economic value of bee pollination in the U.S. each year is on the order of

a. one million dollars

b. 100 million dollars

c. ten billion dollars

d. 100 billion dollars

 

47. The bumble bee Bombus  occidentalis has a short tongue and can’t reach all the way into the flower of Corydalis caseana, a rare Rocky Mountain wildflower, to get to the nectar. Accordingly, this bee bites through the base of the flower and obtains nectar directly, bypassing the anthers and stigma of the flower. What would you call these bees?

a. pollinators

b. nectar criminals

c. nectar robbers

d. nectar burglars

 

48.  What order of insects is exclusively herbivorous?

a. Hymenoptera

b. Thysanoptera

c. Plecoptera

d. Phasmida

 

49. What kind of insect is the vector of the plant disease known as Pierce’s disease?

a. green peach aphid

b. glassy-winged sharpshooter

c. spotted cucumber beetle

d. small elm bark beetle

 

50. About when were crop plants first domesticated?
a. about 1,000 years ago

b. about 10,000 years ago

c. about 100,000 years ago

d. about 1,000,000 years ago

 

51. Insects that suck plant sap can be found primarily in the order

a. Hymenoptera

b. Hemiptera

c. Orthoptera

d. Thysanoptera

 

52.  Which of the following characteristics is NOT true of plant food?

a. it’s low in protein

b. it’s low in salt

c. it’s low in indigestible fiber

d. it’s high in toxins

 

53. In what part of a caterpillar alimentary system are digestive and detoxificative enzymes secreted?

a. buccal cavity

b. foregut

c. midgut

d. hindgut

 

54. Technically speaking, what is “frass”?

a. the sap that takes photosynthate from leaves and distributes it to the rest of the plant.

b. the hooklike structure that joins the wings of Hymenoptera

c. the salivary material injected by aphids into the feeding site

d. insect excrement

 

55. Which of the following changes in plants did NOT happen as a result of domestication?

a. energy allocation to edible parts increased

b. novel dispersal mechanisms were gained

c. plant toxin content decreased

d. flowering and fruiting synchrony increased 

 

56. What is Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum?

a. a fungal disease of locusts

b. a bacterial disease of locusts

c. an insect predator of locusts

d. a nematode parasite of locusts

 

57. Where can Melanoplus spretus be found?

a. North America

b. North Africa

c. deserts of the Middle East

d. nowhere—it’s extinct

 

 

 

58.Which of the following mortality factors is likely to act in a density-independent fashion?

a. disease

b. competition for food

c. fire

d. predation

 

59. Carrying capacity is

a. the number of individuals a particular habitat can sustain given its resources

b. the number of viable eggs or embryos that a particular female can carry

c. the  number of disease organisms an insect can harbor without succumbing

d. the number of individuals moving in or out of a particular population

 

60. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Schistocerca gregaria var gregaria?

a. sexual immaturity upon eclosion as adult

b. yellow color

c. high ratio of wing length to body length

d. ability to eat its weight in food in a day. 

 

61,  What environmental cues are NOT involved in gregarization of locusts?

a. decreasing photoperiod

b. increasing crowding and contact

c. decreasing nutritional content of food

d. pheromones

 

62. To what order does Bombyx mori belong?

a. Diptera

b. Hymenoptera

c. Lepidoptera

d. Coleoptera

 

63. Which U.S. city was known as “Silk City” until labor problems shut down the mills?

a. New York City, NY

b. San Francisco, CA

c. New Haven, CT

d. Paterson, NJ

 

64. The proteinaceous inner layer of a silk filament is composed of

a. sericin

b. sclerotin

c. fibroin

d. chitin

 

 

 

 

 

65. What does Bombyx mori eat?

a. white mulberry leaves

b. any kind of mulberry leaves

c. leaves of a wide range of plant species

d. mulberry seeds

 

66. Which of the following is NOT a property of silk that makes it a desirable fiber?

a. it’s elastic

b. it’s easy to produce

c. it takes dyes well

d. it’s self-extinguishing.

 

67.The Silk Road connected

a. China to India

b. China to the Mediterranean

c. China to the New World

d. China to Africa

 

68.  What caterpillar other than Bombyx mori is used for commercial silk production?

a. the muga caterpillar

b. the tasar caterpillar

c. the eri caterpillar

d. all of the above

 

69. What nation is the leading producer of silk in the world today?

a. India

b. China

c. Japan

d. Thailand

 

70. To date, what has been the principal commercial use for spider silk?

a. clothing

b. fishing line

c. sutures for eye surgery

d. gunsights and bombsights

 

71. Protective waxes, powders, pigments, and fluffs within the suborder Homoptera are characteristic of the

a. Sternorrhyncha

b. Auchenorrhyncha

c. Rhynchocephalidae

d. Peloridiidae

 

 

 

 

72. What arthropods frequently serve as pugnacious bodyguards of homopterans?

a. spiders

b. wasps

c. ants

d. lacewings

 

73. What type of insects are vectors for sugarcane mosaic and carrot redleaf virus?

a. leafhoppers

b. sharpshooters

c. cicadas

d. aphids

 

74. The cochineal scale is native to

a. Middle East

b. Mexico

c. Australia

d. India

 

75. What mordant was commonly used by the ancient Aztecs in combination with cochineal?

a. alum

b. urine

c. vinegar

d. tannic acid

 

76. Trabutina mannipara was used as a source of

a. food

b. wax

c. pigment

d. varnish

 

77. Ground pearls or giant scales have been used historically as a source of

a. candle wax

b. chewing gum

c. jewelry

d. dye

 

78. Which of the following color words does not have an entomological origin?

a. vermilion

b. scarlet

c. red

d. crimson

 

 

 

 

 

79. Historically, the most important use for the lac scale was for making

a. candy glaze

b. dyes

c. records

d. cloth

 

80. Which of the following is NOT known to create galls on plants?

a. mites

b. spiders

c. nematodes

d. bacteria

 

81. What might females of gallforming species inject along with eggs into their host plants?

a. toxins

b. enzymes

c. viruses

d. bacteria

 

82. Which is NOT generally a characteristic of cecidozoans?

a. reduced locomotory apparatus

b. reduced sensory apparatus

c. acoustic behavior

d. absence of anus

 

83. Which of the following gallmakers is considered as significantly  economically harmful?

a. Aleppo gall

b. thistle stem gall fly

c. phylloxera

d. hackberry psyllids

 

84. Over 70% of all North American gallformers belong to two orders, the

a. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera

b. Hymenoptera and Diptera

c. Diptera and Lepidoptera

d. Hemiptera and Orthoptera

 

85. Which of the following does NOT describe the function of gum arabic in gall ink?

a. it acts as a suspension agent for insoluble pigment particles

b. it makes the color more intense

c. it binds the pigment to the paper

d. it modifies viscosity and improves the ink flow

 

 

 

 

 

86. What was the main importance of Cynips insana, “mad apple gall”?

a. gall extracts were used for ink production

b. gall extracts were used for tattooing

c. galls were strung together to make capes

d. gall extracts were used as medicine for mental illness

 

87. What is it in gall extracts that binds to iron salts to form a blue-black precipitate?

a. galbanum

b. carminic acid

c. tannic acid

d. proteins

 

88. Most stored product pest species are related to or descended from

a. species that feed on grain caches in bird or rodent nests

b. predaceous species

c. folivorous species

d. aquatic species

 

89.  What happens in grain processing that actually makes grains less suitable as food for stored product pests?

a. aggregating grains in large amounts in one place

b. separating germ out of flour

c. grinding grains into flour

d. drying grains for storage

 

90. Which of the following do you think is a secondary pest of stored grain?

a. Mediterranean flour moth

b. pea weevil

c. rice weevil

d. sawtoothed grain beetle

 

91. The major protein in fur and feathers that can be digested by carpet beetles is

a. chitin

b. collagen

c. keratin

d. cellulite

 

92. What might you find in casu marzu?

a. tapestry moth

b. carpet beetle

c. cockroach

d. cheese skipper

 

 

 

 

93. Which is not an adaptation typical of stored product pests?

a. winglessness

b. tolerance of dry conditions

c. large size

d. tolerance of toxins

 

94. What is the worst health risk presented by cockroaches?

a. they carry pathogenic bacteria on their bodies

b. their excrement and body parts in house dust are allergenic

c. they can crawl into people’s ears and get trapped

d. they nibble hair and nails of people while they’re sleeping

 

95. What species of cockroach was most recently introduced into the United States?
a. Blattella germanica

b. Blattella asahinai

c. Blatta orientalis

d. Parcoblatta lata

 

96. What ending characterizes family names of insects?

a. optera

b. oprah

c. aceae

d. idae

 

97. What arthropod group is characterized by two pairs of antennae?

a. Arachnida

b. Crustacea

c. Diplopoda

d. Insecta

 

98. An example of an endopterygote order is the

a. Dictyoptera

b. Orthoptera

c. Hemiptera

d. Coleoptera

 

99. In honey bee colonies, division of labor among workers is based on differences in worker

a. size

b. shape

c. age

d. diet

 

100.  The author of the textbook, “Bugs in the System,” is

a. L. L. Langstroth

b. C. V.  Riley

c. M. Berenbaum