Ent. 105

First hour exam

February 21, 2003

Answers in bold


1. Which taxonomic hierarchy is correct?

a. Kingdom, Class, Order, Phylum, Family, Species, Genus

b. Kingdom, Phylum, Family, Order, Class, Genus, Species

c. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

d. Species, Genus, Order, Family, Class, Kingdom, Phylum


2. Which is the proper way to write the scientific name of the Japanese silkworm?

a. bombyx mori

b. Bombyx Mori

c. Bombyx mori

d. Bombyx mori


3. In the scientific name Blattella germanica, what taxonomic unit is designated by Blattella?

a. family

b. genus

c. species

d. subspecies


4. Which of the following scientific names is a patronym?

a. Strigiphilus garylarsoni

b. Diabrotica undecimpunctata

c. Helicoverpa zea

d. Papilio multicaudatus


5. How long has the Linnaean system of binomial nomenclature been in use?

a. since 1658

b. since 1758

c. since 1858

d. since 1958


6. Approximately how many insects have scientific names?

a. 8,000

b. 80,000

c. 800,000

d. 8,000,000


7. Which of the following is NOT a defining trait of the Phylum Arthropoda?

a. tagmosis

b. closed circulatory system

c. hard exoskeleton

d. double dorsal nerve cord


8. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic trait of the Class Arachnida?

a. three pairs of walking legs

b. no antennae

c. two body divisions

d. chelicerate mouthparts


9. Which class of arthropods is characterized by biramous appendages?

a. Diplopoda

b. Chilopoda

c. Crustacea

d. Insecta


10. In which order are all species eusocial?

a. Hymenoptera

b. Isoptera

c. Thysanoptera



11. Species in which order molt continuously throughout their adult life?

a. Plecoptera

b. Thysanura

c. Dictyoptera

d. Odonata


12. The knob-like hind wings of dipterans are called

a. frenula

b. hamuli

c. halteres

d. furcula


13. The surface area/volume ratio means that smaller animals have

a. proportionately less surface area for their volume

b. proportionately more surface area for their volume

c. the same surface area for their volume


14. What is one principal function of the insect epicuticle?

a. provides rigidity

b. provides waterproofing

c. produces new exoskeleton

d. provides color and markings


15. The carbohydrate polymer in insect cuticle that contributes to rigidity is

a. chitin

b. keratin

c. cellulose

d. collagen


16. Which of the following statements is true?

a. Oxygen moves through the body of most insects bound to an oxygen-carrying pigment in the blood.

b. Oxygen moves through the body of most insects in a system of tubes called tracheae.

c. Oxygen moves through the body of most insects in a system of tubes called spiracles. 

d. Oxygen moves through the body of most insects by diffusion.


17. In what order would you find imaginal discs?

a. Orthoptera

b. Phthiraptera

c. Hemiptera

d. Diptera


18. Species in which of the following order lack a pupal stage?

a. Coleoptera

b. Dictyoptera

c. Hymenoptera

d. Lepidoptera


19. Which of the following is a major disadvantage of exoskeletons?

a. Hollow tube-like appendages are not as strong as solid rods made of equivalent material.

b. They’re made of materials that are highly digestible and attractive to many predators.

c. Because they’re rigid, they can’t stretch to accommodate growth.

d. Relatively speaking, they’re heavier and bulkier than endoskeletons. 


20. What type of receptor detects airborne chemicals?

a. mechanoreceptor

b. gustatory receptor

c. hygroreceptor

d. olfactory receptor


21. What is a single unit of an insect compound eye called?

a. ommatidium

b. ocellus

c. Jacobson’s organ

d. rhabdom


22. Moths that orient upwind are displaying what kind of behavior?

a. taxis

b. kinesis

c. primary transverse orientation               

d. secondary transverse orientation


23.  In the typical Campustown apartment, cockroaches fail to respond to shouts or obscenities.  This is despite the fact that physiologically they are capable of hearing these shouts and obscenities .This is probably an example of

a. latent learning

b. classical conditioning

c. habituation

d. insight learning.


24. In the abdomen of adult fireflies is a light-producing organ; cells in these lanterns contain a substance that reacts with oxygen in the presence of an enzyme to produce light.  What’s the name of the enzyme

a. luciferin

b. luciferase

c. ATP

d. luminol


25. What body parts do crickets use to stridulate?

a. their mouths

b. their spiracles

c. their legs

d. their wings


26. Which sex is responsible for firefly flashing?

a. Males only

b. Females only

c. Both males and females.


27.  What group of insects are termites thought to be descended from?

a. bees

b. ants

c. wasps

d. cockroaches


28. Which of the following is NOT a trait defining eusociality?

a. age-related polyethism

b. reproductive division of labor

c. overlap of generations and offspring helping parents

d. cooperative brood care


29. In a honey bee colony, which bees act as foragers?

a. young

b. middle-aged

c. old

d. adults of all ages work as foragers


30. Nests of polistine paper wasps are founded by a single queen who is generally joined after a while by a few auxiliary queens.  Although these auxiliary queens are basically identical in appearance to the foundress queen, they behave differently--they are subordinate and adopt submissive postures and behaviors around the original foundress . The polistine paper wasp society is an example of

a. a primitive eusocial colony

b. an advanced eusocial colony

c. a subsocial colony

d. a presocial colony


31.  Where do bees get wax to build their combs?

a. from resins collected from trees

b. from glands on the abdomens of workers

c. from glands in the head of larvae

d. it’s excreted from the anus.


32. Which are the two female castes in a honey bee society?

a. brood and drones

b. drones and queens

c. queens and brood

d. workers and queens


33.  Which of the following is NOT done by bees when nectar is converted to honey?

a. they convert sucrose into glucose and fructose

b. they filter out all of the plant toxins in the nectar

c. they evaporate off water by fanning their wings

d. they place it in a wax cell to cure


34. Which is NOT present in honey in significant amounts?

a. lipids

b. enzymes

c. vitamins

d. minerals


35.  How long has the movable frame hive been in use?

a. since ancient Rome, starting between 2400 and 600 BC

b. since Rome, starting in the first century BC

c. since medieval Europe, starting around 1200 AD

d. in modern times, starting in the nineteenth century


36. How big is “bee space”?

a. 1/10 to 1/8 inch

b. 1/4 to 3/8 inch

c. 1/2 to 1 inch

d. 1 to 2 inches


37.  Commercially propolis is sold in health food stores because of its high content of

a. sugar

b. wax

c. hormones

d. antioxidants


38.  How do varroa mites hurt bees?

a. they suck their blood and weaken them

b. they infest their tracheae and interfere with respiration

c. they weigh down the bee so that foraging becomes difficult

d. they inject toxins that paralyze the bees


39.  To produce a pound of wax, a colony has to consume how much honey?

a. one pound

b. ten pounds

c. fifty pounds

d. 100 pounds


40. Which of the following is NOT an attribute of honey?

a. it’s hygroscopic

b. it’s sweet

c. it can be high in antioxidants

d. it can be high in protein


41. What kind of insect pollinates plants with poricidal anthers?

a. butterflies

b. flies

c. bumble bees

d. beetles


42. In plants, pollen is produced in structures called

a. anthers

b. pistils

c. stigmas

d. styles


43. What kind of insect pollinates cacao (chocolate tree)?

a. wasp

b. midge

c. honey bees

d. bumble bees






44. Flowers of Stapelia gigantea are fleshy and reddish-purple in color; they have an odor resembling rotten meat and are pollinated by flies.  What term describes this kind of pollination?

a. cantharophily

b. psychophily

c. phalaneophily

d. sapromyophily


45. What body part do bees use to carry pollen?

a. their crop

b. their antennae

c. their corbicula

d. their tarsi


46. The economic value of bee pollination in the U.S. each year is on the order of

a. one million dollars

b. 100 million dollars

c. ten billion dollars

d. 100 billion dollars


47. The bumble bee Bombus  occidentalis has a short tongue and can’t reach all the way into the flower of Corydalis caseana, a rare Rocky Mountain wildflower, to get to the nectar. Accordingly, this bee bites through the base of the flower and obtains nectar directly, bypassing the anthers and stigma of the flower. What would you call these bees?

a. pollinators

b. nectar criminals

c. nectar robbers

d. nectar burglars


48.  What order of insects is exclusively herbivorous?

a. Hymenoptera

b. Thysanoptera

c. Plecoptera

d. Phasmida


49. What kind of insect is the vector of the plant disease known as Pierce’s disease?

a. green peach aphid

b. glassy-winged sharpshooter

c. spotted cucumber beetle

d. small elm bark beetle


50. About when were crop plants first domesticated?
a. about 1,000 years ago

b. about 10,000 years ago

c. about 100,000 years ago

d. about 1,000,000 years ago


51. Insects that suck plant sap can be found primarily in the order

a. Hymenoptera

b. Hemiptera

c. Orthoptera

d. Thysanoptera


52.  Which of the following characteristics is NOT true of plant food?

a. it’s low in protein

b. it’s low in salt

c. it’s low in indigestible fiber

d. it’s high in toxins


53. In what part of a caterpillar alimentary system are digestive and detoxificative enzymes secreted?

a. buccal cavity

b. foregut

c. midgut

d. hindgut


54. Technically speaking, what is “frass”?

a. the sap that takes photosynthate from leaves and distributes it to the rest of the plant.

b. the hooklike structure that joins the wings of Hymenoptera

c. the salivary material injected by aphids into the feeding site

d. insect excrement


55. Which of the following changes in plants did NOT happen as a result of domestication?

a. energy allocation to edible parts increased

b. novel dispersal mechanisms were gained

c. plant toxin content decreased

d. flowering and fruiting synchrony increased 


56. What is Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum?

a. a fungal disease of locusts

b. a bacterial disease of locusts

c. an insect predator of locusts

d. a nematode parasite of locusts


57. Where can Melanoplus spretus be found?

a. North America

b. North Africa

c. deserts of the Middle East

d. nowhere—it’s extinct




58.Which of the following mortality factors is likely to act in a density-independent fashion?

a. disease

b. competition for food

c. fire

d. predation


59. Carrying capacity is

a. the number of individuals a particular habitat can sustain given its resources

b. the number of viable eggs or embryos that a particular female can carry

c. the  number of disease organisms an insect can harbor without succumbing

d. the number of individuals moving in or out of a particular population


60. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Schistocerca gregaria var gregaria?

a. sexual immaturity upon eclosion as adult

b. yellow color

c. high ratio of wing length to body length

d. ability to eat its weight in food in a day. 


61,  What environmental cues are NOT involved in gregarization of locusts?

a. decreasing photoperiod

b. increasing crowding and contact

c. decreasing nutritional content of food

d. pheromones


62. To what order does Bombyx mori belong?

a. Diptera

b. Hymenoptera

c. Lepidoptera

d. Coleoptera


63. Which U.S. city was known as “Silk City” until labor problems shut down the mills?

a. New York City, NY

b. San Francisco, CA

c. New Haven, CT

d. Paterson, NJ


64. The proteinaceous inner layer of a silk filament is composed of

a. sericin

b. sclerotin

c. fibroin

d. chitin






65. What does Bombyx mori eat?

a. white mulberry leaves

b. any kind of mulberry leaves

c. leaves of a wide range of plant species

d. mulberry seeds


66. Which of the following is NOT a property of silk that makes it a desirable fiber?

a. it’s elastic

b. it’s easy to produce

c. it takes dyes well

d. it’s self-extinguishing.


67.The Silk Road connected

a. China to India

b. China to the Mediterranean

c. China to the New World

d. China to Africa


68.  What caterpillar other than Bombyx mori is used for commercial silk production?

a. the muga caterpillar

b. the tasar caterpillar

c. the eri caterpillar

d. all of the above


69. What nation is the leading producer of silk in the world today?

a. India

b. China

c. Japan

d. Thailand


70. To date, what has been the principal commercial use for spider silk?

a. clothing

b. fishing line

c. sutures for eye surgery

d. gunsights and bombsights


71. Protective waxes, powders, pigments, and fluffs within the suborder Homoptera are characteristic of the

a. Sternorrhyncha

b. Auchenorrhyncha

c. Rhynchocephalidae

d. Peloridiidae





72. What arthropods frequently serve as pugnacious bodyguards of homopterans?

a. spiders

b. wasps

c. ants

d. lacewings


73. What type of insects are vectors for sugarcane mosaic and carrot redleaf virus?

a. leafhoppers

b. sharpshooters

c. cicadas

d. aphids


74. The cochineal scale is native to

a. Middle East

b. Mexico

c. Australia

d. India


75. What mordant was commonly used by the ancient Aztecs in combination with cochineal?

a. alum

b. urine

c. vinegar

d. tannic acid


76. Trabutina mannipara was used as a source of

a. food

b. wax

c. pigment

d. varnish


77. Ground pearls or giant scales have been used historically as a source of

a. candle wax

b. chewing gum

c. jewelry

d. dye


78. Which of the following color words does not have an entomological origin?

a. vermilion

b. scarlet

c. red

d. crimson






79. Historically, the most important use for the lac scale was for making

a. candy glaze

b. dyes

c. records

d. cloth


80. Which of the following is NOT known to create galls on plants?

a. mites

b. spiders

c. nematodes

d. bacteria


81. What might females of gallforming species inject along with eggs into their host plants?

a. toxins

b. enzymes

c. viruses

d. bacteria


82. Which is NOT generally a characteristic of cecidozoans?

a. reduced locomotory apparatus

b. reduced sensory apparatus

c. acoustic behavior

d. absence of anus


83. Which of the following gallmakers is considered as significantly  economically harmful?

a. Aleppo gall

b. thistle stem gall fly

c. phylloxera

d. hackberry psyllids


84. Over 70% of all North American gallformers belong to two orders, the

a. Coleoptera and Hymenoptera

b. Hymenoptera and Diptera

c. Diptera and Lepidoptera

d. Hemiptera and Orthoptera


85. Which of the following does NOT describe the function of gum arabic in gall ink?

a. it acts as a suspension agent for insoluble pigment particles

b. it makes the color more intense

c. it binds the pigment to the paper

d. it modifies viscosity and improves the ink flow






86. What was the main importance of Cynips insana, “mad apple gall”?

a. gall extracts were used for ink production

b. gall extracts were used for tattooing

c. galls were strung together to make capes

d. gall extracts were used as medicine for mental illness


87. What is it in gall extracts that binds to iron salts to form a blue-black precipitate?

a. galbanum

b. carminic acid

c. tannic acid

d. proteins


88. Most stored product pest species are related to or descended from

a. species that feed on grain caches in bird or rodent nests

b. predaceous species

c. folivorous species

d. aquatic species


89.  What happens in grain processing that actually makes grains less suitable as food for stored product pests?

a. aggregating grains in large amounts in one place

b. separating germ out of flour

c. grinding grains into flour

d. drying grains for storage


90. Which of the following do you think is a secondary pest of stored grain?

a. Mediterranean flour moth

b. pea weevil

c. rice weevil

d. sawtoothed grain beetle


91. The major protein in fur and feathers that can be digested by carpet beetles is

a. chitin

b. collagen

c. keratin

d. cellulite


92. What might you find in casu marzu?

a. tapestry moth

b. carpet beetle

c. cockroach

d. cheese skipper





93. Which is not an adaptation typical of stored product pests?

a. winglessness

b. tolerance of dry conditions

c. large size

d. tolerance of toxins


94. What is the worst health risk presented by cockroaches?

a. they carry pathogenic bacteria on their bodies

b. their excrement and body parts in house dust are allergenic

c. they can crawl into people’s ears and get trapped

d. they nibble hair and nails of people while they’re sleeping


95. What species of cockroach was most recently introduced into the United States?
a. Blattella germanica

b. Blattella asahinai

c. Blatta orientalis

d. Parcoblatta lata


96. What ending characterizes family names of insects?

a. optera

b. oprah

c. aceae

d. idae


97. What arthropod group is characterized by two pairs of antennae?

a. Arachnida

b. Crustacea

c. Diplopoda

d. Insecta


98. An example of an endopterygote order is the

a. Dictyoptera

b. Orthoptera

c. Hemiptera

d. Coleoptera


99. In honey bee colonies, division of labor among workers is based on differences in worker

a. size

b. shape

c. age

d. diet


100.  The author of the textbook, “Bugs in the System,” is

a. L. L. Langstroth

b. C. V.  Riley

c. M. Berenbaum