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IB 109 Insects and People

Second hour exam April, 2005

1. In which of the following orders is carnivory ALWAYS present?
a. Araneida                      b. Odonata                      c. Neuroptera                  d. All of the above

2. Which of the following hunts by insinuation?
a. praying mantis            b. wolf spider              c. spined soldier bug            d. dragonfly

3. Which of the following families contain primarily species that attack sedentary prey?
a. Syrphidae            b. Chrysomelidae            c. Cerambycidae            d. All of the above

4. In which of the following orders are parasitoids NOT found?
a. Hymenoptera            b. Psocoptera            c. Diptera            d. Coleoptera

5. What is the historical significance of Rodolia cardinalis?      
a. it caused massive devastation to French vineyards in the 19th century
b. it was the first imported predator used in a biological control program in the United States
c. it was the target of the first successful biological control program in the United States
d. it was an important source of dye for the Aztecs in pre-Columbian Mexico.

6. In what order is polyembryony commonly found?
a. Hemiptera                   b. Odonata                      c. Hymenoptera            d. Plecoptera

7. A parasitoid that develops continuously with its host is called a(n)
a. idiobiont            b. koinobiont                   c. continuobiont            d. telmophage

8. What is an example of a nontarget impact of the biological control agent Harmonia axyridis?
a. it bites people and is a nuisance as it overwinters in houses
b. it eats non-economic species of aphids and other softbodied prey
c. it outcompetes native ladybugs
d. all of the above

9.  The production of what enzyme by some primates is consistent with the presence of insects in the diet?
a. keratinase            b. collagenase                        c. chitinase                        d. cellulase

10. Of the following groups of insects, which includes some species in which sex is determined by temperatures experienced by immature stages during development?
a. silverfish            b. scale insects             c. mosquitoes                  d. thrips

11.  Which of the following statements is false?
a. insects are a good source of dietary protein
b. insects are rich in minerals and vitamins
c. insects form a significant part of the diet in places with high ecosystem productivity
d. insects form a significant part of the diet in places where large game animals are rare

12. Who sets food action defect levels that determine the number of permissible insect parts in food?
a. USDA                        b. FDA                        c. FTC                                    d. NIH


13. Why were pandora moth caterpillars favored by the North American Paiutes?
a. They were easily harvested by virtue of their pupation biology
b. They contain a powerful hallucinogen and were used in religious ceremonies
c. They were easily collected on low-lying shrubs and grasses
d. They are naturally sweet-tasting

14.  In which of the following orders is haplodiploidy a regular occurrence?
a. Hymenoptera            b. Coleoptera                        c. Diptera                        d. Lepidoptera

15. Alkali flies have been an important component of the diet in 
a. Mexico            b. Australia            c. South Africa            d. western United States

16. Which of the following edible insects is a lepidopteran?
a. witchety grub            b. white-lined sphinx larva            c. gusano de maguey            d. all of the above

17.  An intraspecific chemical signal is called a
a. pheremone                        b. pheromone                                    c. pherimone                        d. pheremoan

18. What term is synonymous with "thanatosis"?
a. osmeterial eversion            b. aposematism            c. death-feigning            d. background-matching

19. Which of the following insects produces enteric discharges as a defense?
a. three-lined potato beetle       b.  tortoise beetle     c. pine sawfly d. all of the above

20. Which of the following is considered aposematic?
a. orange                        b. black                        c. yellow                                    d. all of the above

21. In what kind of mimicry system do toxic models converge on a common warning color pattern?
a. Beltian                        b. Batesian                        c. Muellerian                        d. Browerian

22. Which of the following insects possess reactor glands?
a. stink bug            b. swallowtail caterpillar            c. bombardier beetle            d. all of the above

23. True or false: Aristolochic acids in pipevine caterpillars are sequestered from the hostplant.
a. True                                                                        b. False

24. What makes stinging hairs sting?
a. histamine            b. antihistamine                        c. dopamine                        d. melamine

25. To what order does the Spanishfly Lytta vesicatoria belong?
a. Diptera                        b. Hymenoptera            c. Lepidoptera                        d. Coleoptera

26. The medicinal ant Polyrachis vicina supposedly boosts the immune system because of its high content of
a. histamine                      b zinc                           c. amino acids                d. proteinase inhibitors

27. What insect-based therapy was used for treating syphilis in the early 20th century?
a. malariotherapy            b. apitherapy                        c. maggot therapy            d. suture ants

28. What insect-based therapy has been used for treating arthritis?
a. malariotherapy            b. apitherapy                        c. maggot therapy            d. suture ants

29. What insects produce Chinese sumac galls with putative medicinal properties?
a. gall wasps                        b. gall flies                        c. aphids                         d. sawflies

30. What is the function of cantharidin in the life of the Spanishfly?
a. it's a nutrient            b. it attracts prey            c. it's an aphrodisiac            d. it's a neurotransmitter

31. What is the "central dogma" of biology?
a. RNA to DNA to protein
b. protein to RNA to DNA
c. DNA to RNA to protein
d. protein to DNA to RNA

32. The proper common name of Drosophila melanogaster is
a. fruit fly            b. picture-winged fly                        c. vinegar fly                        d. Brundlefly

33. The two scientists who first described the structure of DNA as a double helix were
a. Crick and Watson            b. Beadle and Tatum            c. Hershey and Chase            d. Watson and Holmes

34. The process by which individuals with heritable traits conferring survival produce more offspring than do individuals lacking such traits is called
a. speciation            b.independent assortment            c filial regression             d. natural selection

35.  One entomological phenomenon that Darwin cited as evidence of natural selection was
a. crypsis            b. mimicry                        c. winglessness on islands            d. all of the above

36. Approximately how many genes have been found in the Drosophila melanogaster genome?
a. 1400                        b. 14,000                        c. 140,000                                    d. 1,400,000

37. Which of the following is NOT an insect transposon?
a. mariner                        b. woot                        c. morgan                                    d. hermes

38. What does the polymerase chain reaction do?
a. amplifies DNA            b. sequences DNA            c. digests DNA            d. translates DNA into protein

39. Aside from Drosophila melanogaster, what other insect genomes have been sequenced?
a. Apis mellifera            b. Anopheles gambiae            c.Bombyx mori            d. all of the above

40. Where would you find a spermatheca?
a. In female insects            b. In male insects            c. In male and female insects            d. in spiders

41. What does a diving beetle use for obtaining oxygen?
a. physical gill             b. tracheal gill                        c. siphon                        d. diffusion


42. In which of the following orders are all immatures aquatic?
a. Odonata                        b. Plecoptera                        c. Ephemeroptera            d. All of the above

43. The gas present in greatest concentration in a physical gill is.
a. oxygen                        b. nitrogen                        c. carbon dioxide            d. ammonia

44. What function other than respiration do the rectal gills of dragonfly nymphs perform?
a. they're used in prey capture
b. they're used in jet propulsion
c. they're used  in defense against predators
d. they're used in courtship

45. What is unusual about the eyes of whirligig beetles?
a. They don't have any-they rely on their sense of touch for orienting
b. They have a double set-one for looking into the air and a second for looking into the water
c. They contain blue pigment, which allows them to see well in water
d. They have so many facets that the insects effectively have 360 degree vision

46. How do water striders communicate?
a. By water-borne pheromones
b. By bioluminescence
c. By sending and receiving ripples on the water surface
d. By rubbing their wings together to stridulate

47. What is the title of the classic flyfishing treatise written by Izaak Walton in 1653?
a. A Treatyse of Fysshing with an Angle
b. The Compleat Angler
c. Flyfisher's Entomology
d. A River Runs Through It

48 Which of the following orders is likely to be popular with flytying fishermen?
a. Psocoptera                        b. Trichoptera                        c. Siphonaptera            d. All of the above

49. A wet fly is one that
a. floats on top of the water
b. sinks below the water
c. changes color in water
d. doesn't match the hatch

50. The tendency of fish to feed selectively on the most abundant type of prey in an area is referred to as
a. catch and release
b. match the hatch
c. prey switching behavior
d. self-selection

51. An example of an insect involved in myiasis is
a. human bot fly            b. dung beetle                        c. urticating caterpillar            d. face fly

52. An example of an order consisting of species that are ectoparasitic only as adults includes
a. Siphonaptera            b. Phthiraptera                        c. Hemiptera                                    d, Acari

53. An example of an order containing species that are endoparasitic as immatures and free living as adults is
a.  Siphonaptera            b.  Phthiraptera            c.  Diptera                                    d.  Acari

54. Mycetomes are never found in species that are parasitic in all life stages.
a. True                                    b. False

55. Which of the following is characteristic of ectoparasitic insects?
a. thick cuticle
b. flattening of body
c. reduced sensory appendages
d. all of the above

56. Where would you expect to find the human parasite Demodex follicularum?
a. in the pores of facial skin
b. in the intestinal tract
c. burrowed into muscle tissue
d. in the nasal passages

57.  Which of the following is NOT a solenophage (vessel feeder)?
a. mosquito                        b. horse fly                        c. kissing bug                        d. bed bug

58. What anatomical feature characterizes all species in the family Culicidae?
a. striped color pattern
b. blood-feeding habit
c. six-part proboscis
d. association with viruses

59. Which mosquito life stages do not feed on blood?
a. female adults            b. male adults                        c. larvae                        d. both b and c

60. Aedes mosquitoes are the principal vectors for
a. yellow fever                        b. dengue                        c. St. Louis encephalitis            d. all of the above

61. What is an arbovirus?
a. a virus that is carried by a tree-dwelling mosquito
b. a virus that is carried by any arthropod
c. a virus that is carried specifically by a mosquito
d. a virus that infects athropods

62.  Rhodnius prolixus is the principal vector or Trypanosoma cruzi, a pathogen that causes
a. malaria                        b. dengue                        c. Chagas diseaes            d. murine typhus

63. Yellow fever is caused by a virus in the family
a. Baculoviridae            b. Poxviridae                        c. Flaviviridae                        d. Togaviridae



64.  What was it that Max Theiler developed at the Rockefeller Institute in 1936-7?
a. An assay to detect the presence of yellow fever virus in the blood
b. A drug that kills yellow fever virus
c. A vaccine that protects against yellow fever
d. An organophosphate insecticide that kills yellow fever mosquitoes

65. West Nile virus is typically transmitted between mosquitoes and
a. humans                        b. birds                        c. rodents                        d. reptiles

66. Which of the following statements is true?
a. The majority of people infected with West Nile virus develop serious symptoms.
b. Only the elderly and very young are at risk of dying from West Nile virus infctions.
c. Because of successful screening techniques, there have been no cases of West Nile virus acquired through blood transfusions
d. None of the above statements are true

67.  The principal symptom to which yellow fever owes its name is
a. dizziness            b. vomiting black material            c. jaundice            d. mental disturbance

68. You see a mosquito land on your arm.  It  has stripes on its legs and it feeds with its abdomen angled downward.  Most likely, to what genus does this mosquito belong?
a. Anopheles             b. Aedes                                      c. Culex             d. Toxorhynchites

69. Malaria is a known as intermittent fever because
a. its occurrence is spotty across a landscape
b. it tends to recur after several years in remission
c. it is characterized by alternating periods of chills and fever
d. if causes a blotchy rash that does not cover the entire skin surface

70.  How many of the species in the genus Anopheles are vectors of malaria
a. None                        b. Some                        c. All.

71. Plasmodium is a
a. virus                                    b. bacterium                        c. protozoan                        d. nematode

72. The gametocyte stage of Plasmodium is found
a. only in the mosquito            b. only in the human             c. in both mosquito and human

73. The person who demonstrated that mosquitoes could act as vectors of filarial worms was
a. Ronald Ross
b. Charles Alphonse Laveran
c. Patrick Manson
d. Florence Nightingale

74. A relatively new measure for controlling malaria is artemisinin, derived from Chinese herbal medicine.  Artemisinin
a. repels mosquitoes and makes them less likely to bite
b. kills mosquito larvae when it is introduced into water where mosquitoes breed
c. kills the virus that causes the disease
d. kills the protozoan that causes the disease



75. What is NOT a factor in the resurgence of malaria worldwide?
a. increase in the number of mosquito species that serve as vectors
b. increase in the number of mosquitoes resistant to insecticides
c. increase in the number of protozoans resistant to chloroquine
d. failure to develop an effective vaccine for prevention

76. Approximately how many cases of malaria are reported every year worldwide?
a. 200,000                        b. 2,000,000                        c. 20,000,000                        d. 200,000,000

77. Another name for lymphatic filariasis is
a. onchocerciasis            b. loa loa                        c. scoleciasis                        d.elephantiasis

78. Larval fleas feed primarily on
a. blood                        b. fur and feathers            c. skin flakes            d. excrement of adult fleas

79. Which of the following mammals is not likely to harbor fleas?
a. prairie dog                        b. bobcat                        c. elk                                    d. fox

80. The scientific name of the Oriental rat flea is
a. Zenopsylla cheopis
b. Xenopsyllus cheopus
c. Xenopsylla cheopis
d. Spilopsyllus cuniculi

81.  Yersinia pestis is a
a. virus                                    b. bacterium                        c. protozoan                        d. nematode

82. What is a bubo?
a. an abscess of the lung
b. an inflamed lymph gland
c. a spot produced by a hemorrhage under the skin
d. a blackened extremity (finger or toe)

83. The man who first suggested that fleas were principal vectors of plague was
a. Alexandre Yersin
b. Charles Rothschild
c. P. L. Simond
d. William Crawford Gorgas

84. Tularemia is vectored by
a. fleas and ticks            b. fleas and deer flies            c. ticks and deer flies            d. bedbugs

85. A nit is
a. a louse egg.
b. a mark on the skin made by a louse feeding
c. an immature louse
d. a louse dropping

86. Exanthematous typhus is caused by a
a. virus                        b. rickettsia                        c. protozoan                        d. nematode


87. Lice inject the pathogen that causes typhus into the feeding site along with saliva.
a. True                                                            b. False

88. The principal vector of typhus is
a. Pediculus humanus
b. Rickettsia prowazekii
c. Phthirus pubis
d. Hematopinus suis

89. What order contains many species that are coprophagous?
a. Hemiptera                   b. Coleoptera                   c. Plecoptera                   d. Thysanoptera

90. Among the odor components of dung to which coprophagous insects orient is the compound
a. bombykol                   b. cholesterol                  c. skatole             d. resorcinol

91. Transportation by mites in the genus Poecilochirus on the bodies of burying beetles is an example of
a. canthariasis                  b. parasitism                   c. phoresy                      d. detritivory

92. Cues used by the sacred scarab beetle in Egypt to roll dung balls in a straight line include
a. the star Betelgeuse                   b. the sun            c. the moon               d. the Nile

93. What was George Bornemissza’s ultimately successful solution to the Australian bush fly problem?
a. introducing parasitic wasps from Europe to control the flies
b. introducing a pathogenic fungus from Africa to control the flies
c. introducing a novel insecticide that could be given internally to cattle to reduce dung suitability as a larval substrate
d. introducing dung beetles from Africa and Europe to reduce dung availability

94. What is the scientific name of the Australian bush fly?
a. Musca domestica            b. Musca stabulina            c. Mus musculus             d. Musca vetustissima

95. What insect is an important vector of yaws?
a. dung beetles             b. house flies                 c. eye gnats                d. both b and c

96. Most of the truly necrophagous species are in the orders Coleoptera and Hymenoptera
a. True                                                             b. False

97. Larvae in the family Calliphoridae can break down the principal constituent of connective tissue with an enzyme called
a. chitinase                      b. keratinase                     c. collagenase                 d. kinase

98.  An isomegalen diagram plots time from hatch to post-feeding against temperature, with each line representing identical
a. lengths            b. morphological stage            c. age                           d. weight

99. Which species is associated with the “fresh” stage of carrion decomposition?
a. dermestid larva            b. blow fly                    c. sexton beetle            d. cheese skipper

100. What effect does cocaine in a corpse have on the ability of a forensic entomology to estimate time of death?
a. it slows down larval development                   b. it speeds up larval development
c. it causes larvae to abandon a corpse            d. it changes the species composition of the carrion       community