Final exam answers - Spring 2000
4 a & b. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera
5. stag beetles (males are larger than females); stalk-eyed flies (males have wider spacing of eyes)
8. Integrated Pest Management
10. When resistance to two or more chemicals is based on the same behavioral or physiological mechanism. For example, one enzyme detoxifies two pesticides.
11. secondary pest
13. monogyne - only one queen, probably fewer workers
14. lack of moisture
15. screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominovorax
16. An organic pesticide that is used particularly against fire ants, but has broad non-target effects on other organisms.
17.c 275 million acres
18a. Asa Fitch
18b. Benjamin Walsh
18c. Townend Glover
19 a & b. First use of biocontrol; promoted inorganic insecticides; solve the phylloxera problem for Europe by importing resistant American grapes; invented spray nozzle; head of US Entomological Commission
20. T.J. Burrill
21. American Entomology
22. The Morrill Land Grant Act provided land for the development of agricultural and industrial colleges -- entomology would be supported by such colleges.
23. res ispa loquitor - "things speak for themselves" - the wound itself is not enough proof to sue a plantiff - you must prove that the wound occurred on their property or due to their negligence
24. yellowjackets are bees; spiders are insects; crickets are "merry fellows" and are not pests in households at high numbers
25. to prevent and limit disease among bees
26. There are now new expectations for beekeepers, particularly when it comes to safety.
27 a & b. tresspassing; zoning ordinance violations
28 a & b. roads made slick by mass emergences of insects; distraction of the driver when the insect flies into their eye or mouth
29. Aethina tumida is the small hive beetle, a pest that feeds on honeycomb in bee colonies.
30. Honey bees were imported to the New World by Europeans, so they were associated with European settlers.
32 a & b. morphometrics and DNA analysis
35. honey bee
36. witchety grub or cicadas
37. Caterpillar - caterpillars
38. Psyche is a Greek word that can mean either soul or butterfly. Etymology refers to the origin of words.
40. As a demonstration of technical expertise (small size of insects).
43. The boll weevil statue in Enterprise, Alabama.
45b. bottle slide
46. The invasion of the southeastern United States by the boll weevil during at the end of the 19th century and its subsequent economic effects.
48a. Beginning of the End (giant grasshoppers)
49. Their smooth, shiny surfaces are easily replicated in a realistic fashion on computer screens.
50a & b. mouthparts as tools; n-2 appendages (two too few); adversarial relationship with humans
54. Mimic; The Nest
55 a & b. cable mites - irritation from industrial products such as glass wool; various nervous disorders that cause crawling sensations
56. formication (not fornication!!) - sensation of being crawled on by ants
57. A delusion of two - when friends, associates, or relatives also develop a delusion, such as an unfounded belief of being infested by insects.
58. You may avoid disease-bearing or toxic insects.
59 a & b. (descriptions on lecture sheet) systematic desensitization, in vivo therapy, flooding therapy, modelling
60. The development of realistic computer images may render an insect wrangler's job obsolete.
62. Pick just about any major city in North America or Europe. Montreal
63 a & b. biocontrol agents; bait or animal feed shops; art supplies; education and collectors; research
64. Dead insects for use as curios or for collectors.
65. Because some monarch butterflies spend their summers in Illinois.
66.d $90 billion
68. not covered this year!
69 a & b. Imported European cabbageworm; Japanese beetle; German cockroach; Hessian fly
70a. crustaceans such as crabs, shrimp or lobsters
70c. just about any winged insect - honey bee, butterfly, beetles, cockroaches
72 a,b & c. disrupt mating; monitor pest levels; attracticide (lure to a poisonous bait)
73a. John Abbot
73b. Mark Catesby
75c. the author Linnaeus
75d. cat flea
75e. It is a foreign language (Latin).
76. universally understood; sometime descriptive; all life stages covered
78. 800,000 species
80. 2, 3; 8, 6; 0, 1
81ab. aquatic Odonata, Ephemeroptera
parasitic both as adults and immatures - Homoptera (Hemiptera), Phthiraptera, Coleoptera
eusocial species - Isoptera, Hymenoptera, Homoptera (Hemiptera)
suck plant sap - Homoptera, Hemiptera
coprophagous - Diptera, Coleoptera, Dictyoptera
stored product pests - Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera
entirely phytophagous - Phasmida, Homoptera (Hemiptera)
contain parasitoids - Hymenoptera, Diptera
wings that do not fold flat - Ephemeroptera, Odonata
83a. DNA - bases of genetic inheritance
83b. FIFRA - regulates insecticide use
83c. FQPA - evaluates pesticide toxicity to children
83d. IGR - insect growth regulators used to disrupt insect growth and development
83e. DDT - organic pesticide widely used against insects, but banned because of non-target effects
84b. both (in a few insect species)
85 a & b. honey, wax, propalis - Western honey bee (Apis mellifera)
silk, silk proteins - Japanese silk moth (Bombyx mori)
cochineal dye - cochineal scale (Dactylopius coccus) among others
87. Anthropomorphism (for our purposes, the erroneous assignment of human traits to animals) -- killer bees - African bees are only more aggressive in defense of their colony, not simply because they wish to kill humans or homicidal tendencies.
88. many examples -- clover, bumble bees; almonds, honey bees; chocolate tree, midge; figs, fig wasp
89 a & b. larger edible parts; more nutrious parts; fewer toxins and defenses in edible parts; loss of dispersal mechanisms
90a. Anopheles gambiae
90b. Xenopsylla cheopsis
90c. Pediculus humanus
90d. Phthiris pubis
90e. Aedes aegypti
90f. Musca domestica
92a. honey, converted sugars from nectar, honey bees Apis mellifera
92b. honeydew, carbohydrate-rich excrement from phloem feeders, manna scale Trabutina mannipara
93. overcrowding, decline in nutrients in food (same things as other locusts)
94. bomb sights, gun sights, parachute rip cords
95 a & b. food dye, drink dye, cloth dye
96 a. the Vedalia beetle
96b. the cochineal scale
96c. dung beetles from Africa
96d. phorid flies (parasitoids that eat their brains)
97 a & b. concentrate in large amounts; break down grain into components
98 a & b. small size, tolerance of toxins, tolerance of dessication, winglessness, reduce sensory apparatus
106 a & b. maggot therapy, suture ants, bee stings for arthritis, malarial therapy
108. Prey switching behavior refers to the tendancy of a predator (like a trout) to focus on the prey species that is currently abundant. Therefore, a fisherman should use flies that resemble the most abundant prey if they want to catch fish.
109. gene; mutation
110. natural selection
111. a & b. small size, high fecundity, rapid generation time, food is easily obtained, mutations are common
112a. flea, louse, tick, horse fly
112b. Malaysian moths
112c. human bot fly, screwworm fly (for living humans)
112d. face flies
113. The use of DNA technology to identify suspect or victim's blood from a mosquito. Detection of drug traces in a carrion insect. Use of carrion insects to determine WHERE a body has been (for example, a body pulled from the sea with maggots on it has been exposed to air at some time).