|Chapters 13 - 16 Review
It Can't Be!, pgs 362 and 281
Using Human Genome Information, pgs 302-303
From Genetics to Biotechnology, pgs 334-335
Genes To The Rescue, pgs 326 and 345
New Routes to Plant Reproduction, pgs 558-559
Preembryos as Research Subjects, pgs 224-225
An Application of Understanding DNA Structure, pgs 313 & 314
*PCR: An Application of Understanding DNA Replication, pgs 320-321
*DNA Solves a Royal Mystery, pgs 308 and 323
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After studying this material you should be able to:
polymerase chain Reaction
and taq polymerase
|Yellowstone National Park||high temperatures|
|unzipping DNA||DNA primers for specific DNA sequences|
|DNA nucleotides||binding or annealing of primers|
These sites contain a wealth of information concerning genetics, DNA, and Biotechnology. I will include links to specific topics in the body of the outline for this lecture, however I invite you to explore on your own. There might be potential net surfer projects here.
in Bacterial Plasmid
One simply puts together the desired gene with an appropriate promoter (remember a promoter contains the information that controls the "expression" of a gene) for that organism when the engineered plasmid or other expression vector is constructed.
This is a series of web pages that looks at ways of incorporating new genes into plants.
DNA Fingerprinting, also called DNA Profiling, makes use of segments of DNA that do not code for protein products, but do exhibit variability (caused by mutation) in the nucleotide base sequences from individual to individual. When these segments of DNA are cut using restriction enzymes DNA fragments of various lengths are produced. If the DNA of an individual has mutations within restriction sites the DNA will not be cut at those sites and that individual's DNA fragments will be different in length from another's DNA fragments produced by the same restriction enzymes.
When the DNA fragments of an individual are separated by electrophoresis, transferred to a nylon membrane using the Southern blotting technique, and mixed with specific radioactive single-stranded DNA probes, a unique pattern of bands is produced when the membrane is autoradiographed. These bands can be used to identify that individual.
These links provide more detailed information on DNA fingerprinting Especially:
PCR is a technique that uses a naturally occuring DNA polymerase enzyme to produce millions of copies of a specific sequence of DNA from a small sample of many different segments of DNA in a test tube, providing adequate quantities of DNA for analysis in a matter of hours. This technique makes it possible to generate the relatively large amounts of DNA needed for DNA profiling or for use in recombinant DNA processes from a very small sample of DNA. All it takes is a drop of blood from a crime scene or a tiny bit of flesh from the base of an elephant tusk.
The DNA fingerprinting applications noted in the section above made use of nuclear DNA from the chromosomes, but there are other cellular sources of DNA that can be used in DNA fingerprinting (DNA Profiling).
If one is working to determine plant identity or relationships, DNA from the chloroplasts is commonly used.
The cases described in the web links below made use of the anlysis of DNA from mitochondria to determine the identity of a woman's grandchildren. This is based on the understanding that a person's mitochondria are inherited solely from her/his mother.
The mitochondria of human egg cells are contained in the cytoplasm, but the mitochondria of human sperm are located at the base of the flagellum (tail). When a sperm manages to enter an egg cell during fertilization the flagellum is sloughed off and left outside the egg cell. The only mitochondria we inherit come from our mothers.